FDI Trends in Ghana: The Role of China, US, India and South Africa
Kwasi Boakye–Gyasi and Yao Li
Researchers over the years have shown that the FDI has had a positive influence on national economic growth and development. This research examines the FDI Inflow in Ghana and the contribution of the Selected Countries observed FDI inflows between 2000 and 2014. While comparing the quantitative data, the study showed that the selected countries contributed more to the Agriculture, Manufacturing, Building/Construction, and Service sectors of Ghana in terms of volumes of investments and projects as compared to other sectors of the economy due to incentives attached to prioritized economic sectors. On employment generation, the selected countries percentage share of domestic employment was higher than that of expatriate employment due to Ghana investment laws that allows investor with a specific minimum capital of three hundred thousand dollars to employ minimum of ten Ghanaians for every foreign employee hired.
Keywords: FDI, Development Cooperation, Trade Investments, Investing Countries, Economic Sectors
Public Transportation Investments and Economic Growth in Turkey
This study calculates the public transportation capital stock for Turkey for the 1980-2003 period. Then those series are used to estimate the effect of public transportation investments on gross domestic product. A similar attempt is made to formulate public capital stock series for various transportation subsystems and I use them to estimate the effect of subsystem investments on the value-added (so, economic growth) of the transportation sector. Estimations indicate a positive relationship between public transportation investments and gross domestic product. At the subsystem levels, it is estimated that railway, highway, maritime, airline and pipeline investments have various effects on the value-added of the transportation sector.
Keywords: Public Transportation Investments, Economic Growth, Transportation Subsystems, Fixed Capital Stock
The Level of Wage and Labor Productivity in Hotel Industry: An Analysis
Inanda Karina Astari Fatma, Syamsurijal Abdul Kadir, Tatang Sariman and Saadah Yuliana
Wage a phenomenon that happen today is high wage and high competitiveness. Wage theory that was developed by Rees (1973) and Katz (1980) explain that wage cannot only be seen only as a production cost but also as a part of an effort to increase the labor prosperity and motivation. This theory is a wage efficiency theory, which stated that company’s revenue can increase despite paying wage above the market wage equilibrium. Even though here the two experts had calculated the problem of labor’s quality but they have not reach empirical testing by developing certain model. Therefore, the researchers saw this gap as an opportunity to unravel the phenomena happening to labor and make an effort to develop an empirical model to see the influence of wage to productivity and variable that can measure the quality of labor and other variables that affect wage and productivity simultaneously. The factors used are the difference in individual characteristic, human capital, and quality of work life. The approach of this research is constructivism approach through quantitative analysis technique with simultaneous equation system. Analysis unit in this research is labor in hospitality industry. Estimation results of research shows that education, training, experience, work hour and productivity have significant positive influence to wage, while age and work status is not significant. Quality of work life, and wage have significant positive influence to productivity, while education, experience, age and work status have no significant influence. Important finding from research that training has significant influence to productivity but negatively. Overall, findings of this research show that positive effect of training to productivity will be bigger in organization that willing to invest in work environment that support the labor.
Keywords: Human Capital, Hotel Industry, Labor Productivity, Quality of Work Life, Wage
Determinant of Housing Rents in Urban Albania: An Empirical Hedonic Price Application with NSA Survey Data
Mustafa Kahveci and Ernil Sabaj
As an immobile, durable and heterogonous good, each housing unit has a bundle of different characteristics. Hedonic price method, which depends on the consumer theory of the classical economics, implies that each characteristic of heterogeneous goods provides a different level of satisfaction or utility to the consumer, being widely accepted as a toolkit for estimating effects of these characteristics on prices and rents. HPM expresses housing prices as the function of structural characteristics, location characteristics, and neighborhood characteristics. Theory and empirical applications of the HPM, which have been used for more than 40 years in developed countries, due to the lack of suitable data related literature is limited in Albania. The aim of this paper is to analyze the relationship between housing rents and housing characteristics in urban Albania with micro database of Living Conditions and Income Survey 2012.
Keywords: Real Estate Market in Albania, Hedonic Price Model, Public Good Accessibility, Regional Differentiation in Housing Market
The National Competitiveness – Attractiveness or/and Aggressiveness
The object of the article is the National competitiveness, which we relate to the understanding that it is the possibility for maintaining high levels of labor and capital efficiency, and to reach stable economical progress through systematic innovations, and this to be combined with an increase of the real income of the population. It includes a certain level of competition and thereby it is the subject of the research. The purpose is to find out the prerequisites of the competition in progress and the reaching of the high competitiveness. They could be found in the model pursuit and followed by the businesses – of attractiveness or of aggressiveness.
Keywords: World Economy, Competitiveness, Competitive Advantages, Direct Foreign Investments
Inter Sector Labor Mobility in Palembang, Indonesia
Neneng Miskiyah, Taufiq Marwa, Tatang A.M. Sariman and Rosmiyati Chodijah
This study discusses the inter sector labor mobility in Palembang working in the primary, secondary, and tertiary sectors. In this study, the inter sector labor mobility is divided into three (3) categories: (1) a new sector of new type of job, (2) a new sector of same type of job, and (3) the same sector of same type of job. The data used are the cross section data obtained through field surveys. By using multinomial logistic regression model, the results indicate that the variable income, job experience, education, and the number of family members significantly influence the inter sector labor mobility on category 1 compared to category 3. Meanwhile on category 2 compared to category 3, the variables that significantly influence the mobility are income and job security.
Keywords: Inter Sector Labor Mobility, Multinomial Logistic Regression, New Sector of New Type of Job, New Sector of Same Type of Job, Same Sector of Same Type of Job
Eye for an Eye – What Markets Consider Important When Valuing Businesses
Attracting investment capital is important for any developing country. In case of Georgia, attracting capital from foreign markets is of utmost importance as capacity of local financial market is limited. The study provides empirical assessment of micro and macro factors that affect valuation of businesses in international markets. These factors are grouped into company characteristics (having overall importance of 68%), current standing of businesses in industry/sector and region (16% and 1% respectively) and country characteristics (15%). Two out of these four groups of factors, namely sector and region, are out of control of governments and businesses. However, they have control over factors that weight 83% in total. This empirical observation supports the notion that joint efforts of governments and businesses can influence valuation of businesses on international financial markets.
Keywords: Attracting Investment Capital, Financial Markets, Business Valuation, Government Strategy, Business Strategy
The Distribution of Income: Evidence from the Turkish Case (2006-2015)
Hale Balseven and Zafer Baris Gul
This study analyzes income distribution types, both individual and functional, in terms of the first and the last quintiles in Turkey from 2006 to 2015. In this respect, the study first reveals how income types represented by functional income distribution are distributed for the first and last quintiles. Secondly, the inequalities arising within different income types obtained by the respective income quintiles are involved to the analysis. TURKSTAT Income and Living Conditions Survey dataset has been used in the study. With regards to methodology, first the variations that occurred in the shares obtained by households in different income categories for the first and last income quintiles have been used from 2006 to 2015. The improving or deteriorating effects of the relevant income quintiles on income inequality have been put forth for these variations. Then, the Lorenz curves and the Gini coefficients have been used to assess the distribution within each income category. According to the findings of the study, items that increase income equality for the first quintile are salaries and wages, pensions and survivors’ benefits, property income and other social transfers. On the other hand, casual incomes, entrepreneurial incomes, household transfers and rental incomes are the income categories that deteriorate income equality against the first income quintile. While wages and salaries have a positive effect on establishing income equality within this category, rental and property income are the types of income that reveal the most unequal distribution within themselves.
Keywords: Income Distribution, Personal Income Distribution, Factor Income Distribution, Turkey
The Consequences of the Choice of an Economic Model for the Development of CIS Countries
The development of the CIS countries over 1990-2013 showed that some of these countries use not a variation of traditional economic models (Anglo-American and German-Japanese), but an entirely new model. The article describes the main features of this model as the priority of the rule of patronizing over law; the alienation of the worker from the means of production and management; its dependence on natural rather than intellectual resources, and explains why its use results in low efficiency and high volatility of economic development in these countries. Therefore, the article suggests ways to change it to a more progressive one.
Keywords: Economic Model, Regulation, Efficiency, CIS Countries
Evaluation of the Trade Relationship between Vietnam and China; Vietnam and United States: A Comparison Using Gravity Model
Lien Thi Dinh
This study aims to evaluate the determinants of trade relationship between two largest trading partners of Vietnam, United States and China. Using gravity model for time series data from 1986 to 2015, the study found that economic growth rate plays a crucial role in stimulating the trade flow. Both trade relationships fit with the practical approach of Heckscher-Ohlin theory, stating that trade flow increases between countries with different income levels. The most important finding of this study lines on the results regarding the impact of trade agreements. While United States-Vietnam bilateral agreement creates trade, the trade agreement between ASEAN and China produced trade diversion. As China expands its markets among ASEAN countries, Vietnam should diversify its export markets to improve its export flow.
Keywords: Trade Relationship, Gravity Model, Trade Agreement
Aksemsettin Mah. Kocasinan Cad.
Erenoglu Is Merkezi
Fatih – Istanbul, TURKEY
Email: [email protected]
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.