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Eurasian Journal of Business and Management

Vol.11 No.2
June 2023

 Page Number

 Article Information


An Exploratory Study of Crisis Leadership Qualities: the Creative, Adaptive, Resilient, Emotional Intelligence (CARE) Survey

Cheng Boon Koh

DOI: 10.15604/ejbm.2023.11.02.001


Crises are low-probability but high-impact situations and events that may have adverse ramifications on individuals, organizations, society, nations, and the world. Studies have suggested that crisis leadership is an essential competency, but it has rarely been researched. This study aimed to identify important crisis leadership qualities as this is a critical knowledge gap that needs to be addressed by both researchers and educators. Understanding key crisis leadership qualities can serve as a basis for developing a psychometric tool to raise the awareness of leaders and individuals, which is essential for effective leadership education and development. This study adopted a four-stage exploratory study approach: 1) initial proposal based on the literature review and the personal experience of the researcher; 2) refinement through a pilot study with SMEs; 3) experiment with undergraduate students, and 4) experiment with military officers. This exploratory study suggests that the CARE survey is valid and reliable for measuring crisis leadership qualities.  The findings have practical implications for leadership selection, education, and development. The proposed CARE model offers a building block for researchers and practitioners including leaders to think out of the box, be able to adapt and have resilience and emotional intelligence to lead effectively and successfully during a crisis.   

Keywords: Crisis Leadership Qualities, Self-awareness, Leadership Development


The effect of Regulatory Compliance on SMMEs’ Access to Government Support during Covid 19 Lockdown: the Case of King Cetshwayo District in KwaZulu Natal

Sheunesu Zhou, Mandla Mfundo Masuku, Tendai Chimucheka, and Ayansola Olatunji Ayandibu

DOI: 10.15604/ejbm.2023.11.02.002


This paper analyzes the impact of non-compliance on distribution of government support to SMMEs in the King Cetshwayo district in South Africa during the Covid 19 lockdown. We use qualitative data from semi-structured interviews and thematic content analysis to analyze the experiences and perceptions of government employees and political representatives who were involved in distributing the goods or services. Our findings show that compliance and negative attitudes towards compliance requirements were a hindrance to government interventions to ameliorate the Covid 19 pandemic induced recession. The top-down structure of the compliance system also contributed to challenges as local, national, and regional regulators were not coordinated with each other. We therefore recommend alignment of compliance requirements across the distinct levels of government (regulators), and improvement in efficiency of the regulatory system. A complete online system can be used and made accessible to local regulators to improve service delivery. In addition, compliance requirements can be relaxed during times of crises to enable access to government support by SMMEs.

Keywords: Compliance, Government Intervention, Regulation, Qualitative


Executive Pay Cuts during Covid: Yielding to Pressure or Potential for Real Change?

Florian Meier

DOI: 10.15604/ejbm.2023.11.02.003


Executive compensation has been the subject of longstanding criticisms for possibly setting wrong incentives or for being excessive. In the Covid pandemic in 2020/2021, numerous CEOs worldwide decided to temporarily forgo part of their compensation in response to calls for solidarity with stakeholders who had to make financial or other sacrifices. While there have been suggestions that these concessions might be the starting point for wider reforms of executive compensation to address some of the criticisms, pay has quickly returned to pre-Covid levels and reached new record highs. This article examines whether the executive pay concessions made during Covid should be considered a temporary phenomenon, or whether they might indeed have the potential to start a larger process of reassessing and reforming executive compensation. The analysis explored three angles: First, the cuts to compensation themselves were examined to understand the type of compensation affected and their magnitude. Second, reasons and pressures that led firms to adjust pay during the onset of the crisis were explored, and whether they can be considered temporary or more fundamental. Third, the theoretical angle used legitimacy theory, institutional theory, and resource dependence theory to assess the intention and longevity of measures undertaken. Taken together, the analysis suggests the actions on pay were a temporary reaction to a specific situation, and do not seem to be intended nor contain potential for longer lasting, widespread changes.

Keywords: Executive Compensation, CEO Pay, Pay Controversies, Covid Pandemic, Legitimacy Theory


Growth Opportunities for an Alpine Ski Resort in Norway

Jan Frick

DOI: 10.15604/ejbm.2023.11.02.004


This paper explores growth opportunities for an Alpine ski resort in Norway, examining potential investments in infrastructure, market expansion, and diversification of services. The financial implications of capital expenditure (CapEx) and operational expenditure (OpEx) are considered with digitalization alongside their projected impact on the resort’s profitability. An analysis of the Norwegian ski industry and trends in global tourism is presented to provide a comprehensive understanding of growth potential. The findings of this study will provide guidance to resort stakeholders seeking to capitalize on emerging market opportunities and improve financial performance.

Keywords: Alpine Ski Resort, Digitalization, Market Growth

Eurasian Publications
(Esra Barakli)
Aksemsettin Mah. Kocasinan Cad.
Erenoglu Is Merkezi
Fatih – Istanbul, TURKEY
Email: [email protected]
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