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Vol.8 No.3
September 2020

 Page Number

 Article Information

167-181

Organizing Challenges Faced by Trade Unions in the Hospitality Industry of Zimbabwe

Farai Ncube and Olabanji Oni

DOI: 10.15604/ejbm.2020.08.03.001

Abstract

Globally there are a lot of developments and changes happening in the tourism industry affecting the traditional business operations and with a serious effect on employment relations patterns. Trade unions have been at the receiving end owing to these changes. New forms of employment coupled with other changes have adversely affected the ability of trade unions to effectively organize. While union strength is measured by a number of aspects, membership remains the main indicator of union power. In this article, we examine the organizing challenges faced by the Trade Unions in the Hospitality Industry of Zimbabwe. We employ a qualitative study utilizing a sample of 80 respondents drawn from union officials (10), shop stewards (40) and management representatives (30). The study reveals that the unions face a myriad of challenges ranging from lack of resources to effectively organize and support all initiatives in place, political persecution affecting member perceptions, lack of management support, destroying all union efforts as well as changing demographics and employment conditions among other challenges. We maintain that the survival of a trade union depends primarily on its ability to organize workers. We advance the argument that the industry is not immune to the developments and changes happening in the contemporary world of work and for unions to survive they have to co-evolve. We conclude that the identified challenges can actually be opportunities for the trade unions.

Keywords: Organizing Challenges, Trade Unions, Hospitality Industry, Zimbabwe

182-190

The Compliance Challenges of Small, Medium and Micro Enterprises in South Africa

Jeremiah Madzimure

DOI: 10.15604/ejbm.2020.08.03.002

Abstract

The Small, Medium and Micro Enterprises (SMMEs) play a crucial role in the development of South African economy through job creation and improving the standard of living. Despite their importance, majority of these SMMEs are facing compliance challenges. The study seeks to identify compliance challenges of SMMEs in terms of the company act and the impact on their ability to conduct business while remaining competitive and legal in South Africa. This study was conducted in Gauteng province of South Africa. The study applied a qualitative, interpretive approach. The thematic analysis through inductive process was used to analyze the interview responses collected from the participants. The main findings reveal that the uneven business environment has rendered the prosperity and growth of small business impossible. That impossibility is attributed to the lack of capacity and skill to comply with the burden of the company act, given the uneven ground of competition on which large enterprises are more experienced and resourceful. The value of this study is the proposed solution to the current compliance challenges which most SMMEs face and impede their growth. The study recommends that the government offer tax rebates and incentives for SMMEs.

Keywords: Compliance Challenges, Poverty, SMMEs, Unemployment, Barriers, South Africa

191-204

Energy Demand and Race Explained in South Africa: A Case of Electricity

David Mhlanga and Rufaro Garidzirai

DOI: 10.15604/ejbm.2020.08.03.003

Abstract

The study investigated the influence of race in the demand for energy in South Africa using electricity as a case study. The driving force behind the study was to establish whether race still plays a role in access to energy in the country, 26 years into democracy. The study’s contribution is premised on influencing the development of policy that addresses energy inequality in South Africa and the world at large. Using the logistic regression analysis, the study found that race still plays a role in the demand for energy in South Africa. The odds of demand for electricity for the White population was 46.748 per cent higher than that of Blacks, Colored, and Indians combined. Other significant variables were gender, age of household head, net household income per month in Rand and household size. Despite constituting much of the populace in South Africa, the demand for electricity of the Black population was third compared to other races. Such findings reflect the reality that many of the Black households are suffering from energy poverty. Given these results, it is recommended that the South African government invests more in energy and alternative sources of clean energy such as solar and wind which can cater for much of the population.

Keywords: Energy, Electricity, Demand, Race, South Africa

205-219

Implications of Sustainable Supply Chain Management Literature to Management Accounting

Asuman Atik and Iva Kovacevic

DOI: 10.15604/ejbm.2020.08.03.004

Abstract

The main purpose of this article is to make an extensive review on the sustainable supply chain management literature in order to find some implications to management accounting. It also aims to explain sustainability in supply chain management, the needs of a sustainable supply chain, historical development and importance of sustainable supply chains. As the first step, a keyword search was conducted in the well-known databases, and then, sustainable supply chain management (SSCM) studies, which have connections to and implications for management accounting are evaluated and summarized separately. Although SSCM literature is very rich, the number of SSCM studies which have implications to management accounting is scarce. They point out that management accountants may take parts especially in determining cost and profitability of sustainable products, cost and quality evaluation of input materials and risk evaluation of suppliers, developing costing models for sustainable production, measuring performance in economic, environmental and social areas, and making cost-benefit analysis in the implementation and adoption of sustainability in each steps of sustainable supply chains.

Keywords: Sustainability, Sustainable Supply Chains, Management Accounting

220-229

Methodology for Research Through Simulation Business Game as a Tool for Strategic Management and Control

Venelin Terziev and Mitko Stoykov

DOI: 10.15604/ejbm.2020.08.03.005

Abstract

Modelling a business game to test the building of capabilities for enhancing institutional resili- ence requires a thorough knowledge of the underlying in the reviewed process base concepts (for counteracting hybrid threats, for building defence capabilities, for the functioning of the business model of the national security system and etc.) and following a specific management strategy. The business simulation games should be seen as a concrete model of abstractions from the reality. Therefore, when analyzing the results of their implementation, it should be borne in mind that the tested coherence of a theory or concept can be successful in a particular model or simulation, but this is not actually a guarantee of overall consistency with the real world, especially when testing newly developed theories and concepts with many conventions. Therefore, the selection of concepts, variables, the way the model is developed, the approaches to conduct, and especially the management of this type of scientific research are of particular importance. Of course, the most profound impact on the results is the level of professionalism in preparing the analysis of the results of each business simulation game.

Keywords: Simulation Business Game, National Security System, Tools, Cyber-Attacks, Busi- ness Game

230-239

Assessing the Impact of Service Recovery Strategies on Procedural Justice in Higher Education Institutions

Steven Kayambazinthu Msosa and Gona Govender

DOI: 10.15604/ejbm.2020.08.03.006

Abstract

Students in higher education institutions encounter different problems which are normally reported through the appropriate complaints channels. Sometimes institutions and their employees do not address the reported problems on time due to systematic issues such as internal processes or procedures which are cumbersome. This paper assessed the impact of service recovery strategies (speed and empowerment) on procedural justice in higher education institutions. The study was conducted across three public universities in South Africa using a purposive sample of 430 students. The findings showed that speed and empowerment have a positive and significant impact on procedural justice. The findings underpin the importance of fairness in the procedures being used to address student problems. Besides, the study could help faculty and institutional managers to pinpoint areas that are hindering the smooth running of the operations and interface between students and employees of the universities. This study contributes to the literature on procedural justice in the higher education sector and provides an analysis of students’ experiences from the developing world where infrastructural and financial challenges contribute to the final recipe.

Keywords: Higher Education Institutions, Students, Speed, Empowerment, Service Recovery, Procedural Justice

240-265

Emotional Intelligence and Cultural Intelligence in Top Management of International SMEs

Angelo Miguel R. Cabral, Fernando Manuel P. O. Carvalho, and Jose Antonio V. Ferreira

DOI: 10.15604/ejbm.2020.08.03.007

Abstract

The psychological characteristics of international firms’ decision-makers are of major importance in an increasingly borderless business world. Cultural intelligence (CQ) and emotional intelligence (EI) endow individuals with critical abilities to interact in multicultural environments. Given the scarcity of empirical studies, this research studies the relationship between CQ and EI and their dimensions respectively. This study focuses on the decision- makers of international micro, small and medium-sized enterprises. The sample is composed of 307 international top managers. Constructs convergent and discriminant validities were verified and the relationship between them was assessed. Despite difference, the two intelligences are significantly related. In relation to their dimensions, significant relationships emerged as well significant emotional predictors of cultural intelligence. According to the results, the two intelligences emerged as important related capabilities within international top managers. We attested that in international business contexts, cultural and emotional intelligences are important and related capabilities.

Keywords: Emotional Intelligence, Cultural Intelligence, Cross-Cultural Management, Internationalization

266-281

Measuring Financial Inclusion and Its Determinants Among the Smallholder Farmers in Zimbabwe: An Empirical Study

David Mhlanga and Steven Henry Dunga

DOI: 10.15604/ejbm.2020.08.03.008

Abstract

The study sought to assess the levels of financial inclusion among the smallholder farmers and to investigate its determinants among the same. The study employed a household measure to measure the level of financial inclusion and multiple regression to assess the determinants of financial inclusion. The results indicated that the level of financial inclusion among the smallholder farmers was low because the percentage of households who were actively participating in the formal financial system was below 27 per cent below 50 per cent. The investigation on the driving factors of financial inclusion indicated that off-farm income, education level, distance, financial literacy and age of the household were the significant variables in explaining the determinants of financial inclusion among the smallholder farmers in Manicaland Province of Zimbabwe. Therefore, the study discovered that it is important for the government of Zimbabwe and financial institutions to form partnerships to come up with policies that ensure that smallholder farmers are included in the formal financial market and these policies should motivate households to use the formal financial services. Also, the crafted should strive to remove all the barriers to financial inclusion among the smallholder farmers. For instance, looking at farmers, many farmers are finding it difficult to access loans due to lack of collateral security, so banks need to come up with services and products that are tailor-made for the smallholder farmers especially on credit, services that allow smallholder farmers to borrow.

Keywords: Determinants, Financial Inclusion, Measuring, Smallholder Farmers, Zimbabwe

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