A Psychological Perspective on the Role of Culture in Sino-European FDI Contexts – Managers’ Perception of Cultural Difference and Its Impact on International Business
Katiuscia Vaccarini, Barbara Pojaghi, and Song Yan
This paper aims at conducting an explorative study to investigate three research questions: 1) whether culture in cross-cultural business context still matters, 2) why it matters, and 3) how we can deal with cultural differences. Drawing upon theories of international business, social/cultural psychology and the contributions of positive psychology, this study in the context of Sino-European FDI provides a more integrative and constructive view of culture (cultural differences) as an evergreen phenomenon in international business. Extant literature contains numerous studies about culture, mostly from the perspective of countries and organizations. We fill the void in our study by focusing on the individual level and explore the perceptions of culture of European managers investing in China. Our sample consists of managers representing their European companies investing in China. Managers’ perceptions were inquired along 12 dimensions within the psychic distance model, elaborated and operationalized by international business scholars. Managers agreed on replying to a series of questions under the form of an interview, including Likert scale questions, reflecting their perceptions along each psychic distance dimension, including culture. Main findings show that culture is perceived as the most relevant dimension in Sino-European contexts. This paper contributes to the literature on cultural impact in international business settings by focusing on the individual’s subjective perceptions. This study highlights how intergroup relations between European and Chinese managers coming from different cultural background are challenging, while the diversity and perceived differences also provide opportunities.
Keywords: Europe, China, Culture, Cultural Differences, Cultural Distance, Managers’ Perceptions, Cross-Cultural Business
Business Students’ Attitudes towards Business Ethics in Saudi Arabia: The Gender Factor
Wesal M. Aldarabseh
Implementation of ethical principles is considered of great importance for the existence and continuation of companies. In the current study, the attitude of university business students in Saudi Arabia toward business ethics was investigated. In addition, the impact of gender and ethics education on such attitude was also examined. A total of 357 students was recruited in the study from College of Business Administration, Taibah University in Almadinah city. Students’ attitude was examined using ATBEQ scale. The results showed that the mean ATBEQ scale score for the whole sample was 3.12 ± 0.74 (95% confidence interval: 2.84-3.40). Significant differences were detected between male and female students in 8 items out of 30 (P < 0.01). Female students showed more ethical attitude and morals than males. The results also showed that students who completed business ethics course have greater ethical values towards business than the ones who did not take it yet. In conclusion, gender and ethics education might impact the attitude of Taibah business students toward business ethics.
Keywords: Business, Ethics, Gender, Saudi Arabia, Students
Key Aspects of Place Marketing as Instrument for Attracting Foreign Investment in the Real Sector of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Mustafa Sinanagic, Beriz Civic, and Boro Ninic
The paper explores the key aspects of place marketing in terms of their importance for attracting foreign investment into the real sector of Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH). The research problem in this paper is the identification of the key features of place marketing for BiH as an investment destination as well as the features important to foreign investors when they make decisions on investing into the real sector in BiH. The research goals are: to determine the reasons motivating foreign investors to invest into the real sector in BiH, to determine the infrastructure features of BiH as an investment destination, to determine the key problems that foreign investors face in BiH, to gain knowledge of foreign investors’ perception of BiH as an investment destination, and to determine desirable features of place marketing of BiH for attracting foreign investment into the real sector. The paper briefly highlights the importance of place marketing for attracting foreign investment and the characteristics of place marketing as an instrument for attracting foreign investment. The research results show that economic and legal framework is the key challenge in the development of marketing BiH as a desirable investment destination, and BiH is not recognized as a desirable investment destination.
Keywords: Place Marketing, Foreign Investment, Bosnia and Herzegovina as Investment Destination
Consumers Attitudes to Innovations in Retail: A Case of Introducing the Self Scanning Technology in Russia
Currently, retail is one of the most innovative economic sectors. High competition forces retailers to look for new ways and methods of working with consumers. The introduction of innovative technologies allows retailers to improve the quality of service, become more attractive for their consumers and form consumer loyalty to their brands. At the same time, not all innovations meet the expectations of retailers. Consumers are not always ready to use innovative products and technologies, preferring traditional shopping formats. This problem is particularly relevant for emerging markets. The goal of our research is to analyze the experience of retail innovations using in the Russian market. The object of our research was the self scanning technology, which has just appeared on the Russian market. This technology allows a consumer to make purchases independently without the assistance of the seller. At the entrance to the store the consumer can take a special device. Next, the consumer selects the desired product and scans its bar code with a personal scanner. During the scan, the screen displays the price of the product, the size of the discount and the total amount of the purchase. This avoids the problems associated with incorrect price tags and product discounts. The consumer can pay for the purchase at the self-checkout. In spite of a number of obvious advantages for the buyer, the self scanning technology expansion is very slow in the Russian market. Our research is focused on studying the experience of using the self scanning technology, as well as the buyer’s difficulties and problems with it. Observation and formalized survey were chosen as research methods. The results of the study allowed us to develop the recommendations for retailers to encourage their customers to use the self scanning technology.
Keywords: Russian Retail, Customer Behavior, Perception of Innovation, Problems of Innovations Spreading
Accounting Outsourcing Issues
Accounting outsourcing practice is very common in SMEs because it enables companies to focus more on their core business since accounting encompasses large scope of complicated activities that require high level of accounting knowledge and competencies. This paper sheds light on fundamental issues of accounting outsourcing regarding the conversance with accounting among managers in micro companies. Since accounting is management information system, its purpose is to provide managers with relevant information and this purpose can be fulfilled if managers understand accounting. Their conversance with accounting and taxation is necessary because managers are responsible for preparing financial statements. Results show that majority of micro companies outsource accounting and this is related to lower level of conversance with accounting and consequently lack of need for accounting information in everyday business. Greater level of accounting knowledge and the use of accounting information is found in micro companies with internalized (in-house) accounting. Findings indicate that although it is more expensive and complicated solution, companies should internalize accounting system.
Keywords: Accounting Outsourcing, In-House Accounting, Externalized Accounting, Internalized Accounting, Outsourcing Issues, Micro Companies
Aksemsettin Mah. Kocasinan Cad.
Erenoglu Is Merkezi
Fatih – Istanbul, TURKEY
Email: [email protected]
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.