Reflections on the State and the Accountancy Profession in Italy
Riccardo Macchioni, Clelia Fiondella, and Rosalinda Santonastaso
The purpose of the paper is to examine the development of the accountancy profession in Italy, with particular reference to its relationship with the State. The period under review goes from 1906 – the year in which Law no. 327 was enacted regulating the accountancy profession consistently throughout the nation – until 2005, when the professional bodies of the dottori commercialisti and the ragionieri merged. The study uses both primary and secondary sources. The primary sources are a selection of laws, decrees and regulations issued by the government over time. A second set of documents consulted is the summaries of parliamentary debates and the explicative notes to laws and regulations. The secondary sources include writings on the sociology of the professions, international publications on the relationship between State and profession and economic history treatises on the history of the accountancy profession. The sources are examined mainly using a qualitative–deductive methodology. Passing through the analysis of some relevant variables, the results of study highlight how the State have significantly influenced the development of the accountancy profession. At the same time, this study extends the observation to a poorly explored economic–social context.
Keywords: State, Accountancy Profession, Dottori Commercialisti, Ragionieri, Italy
Joint B2B Recovery Management: The Role of Locus of Failure
Naghmeh Nik Bakhsh and Iivi Riivits-Arkonsuo
The benefits of the co-creation of failure recovery are well recognized in the literature. So far, however, there has been little discussion about the collaborative process of joint recovery management and the role played by the locus of failure in this process in the Business-to-Business context. Drawing on service-dominant logic and service logic, this paper attempts to explore the main sources/locus of failure and their roles in the level of supplier and customer collaboration during the failure recovery activities. Through the qualitative interviews with suppliers and customers firms based in Iran, the authors identify the main locus of failure and analyze the level of collaboration in recovery activities between the supplier and customer firms. The result reveals there are four main sources of failure (supplier-induced error, customer-induced error, an environmental factor, and unknown causation of failure) and two recovery management perspectives (reactive vs. proactive) in the B2B context. Our findings indicate that the level of joint recovery changes depending on the source of the failure in the business environment. Particularly, the level of joint recovery can be shown on a spectrum where the minimum level of collaboration is possible when the error is caused by the supplier and the maximum level of joint recovery happens when the root cause of failure is difficult to identify.
Keywords: Recovery Management, Business-to-Business, Locus of Failure, Service Failure, Iran
The Nexus between Government Revenue and Macroeconomic Indicators in South Africa
Thomas Habanabakize, Lerato Mothibi, and Precious Mncayi
Government revenue plays a paramount role in any country’s development and citizen welfare. This is done through government provision of crucial services related to development which include but not limited to finances or subsidies to business entities and citizens through the national wealth distribution. The importance of government revenue is directly correlated with other equally important outcomes. Hence, there exist an interdependence or interaction between macroeconomic variables and government revenue. Therefore, understanding the relationship between government revenue and macroeconomic variables can assist in improving a country’s economy and the development of its people. The core objective of this study was to analyze the effect of some macroeconomic variables on the South African government revenue from 1994 to 2021. Both short-run and long run relationships amongst variables were analyzed using the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model. The long-run and short-run findings indicated that the level of government revenue depends on performance of the analyzed macroeconomic variables namely; balance of payments, economic growth, employment and real effective exchange rate. Employment and economic growth were found to be the major determinants of government revenue. Consequently, the study suggests that the introduction and implementation of policies and strategies that enhance employment opportunities and promote economic growth would be a fundamental way to increase government revenue and improve economic and social well-being.
Keywords: Autoregressive Distributed Lag, Government Revenue, Revenue, Macroeconomic Indicators, South Africa
The Use of the Statement of Cash Flows by Japanese SMEs
Katsuyoshi Okabe and Martha G. Suez-Sales
The purpose of the study is to analyze the usage of the statement of cash flows (SCF) by Japanese SMEs from the perspective of preparers. The paper analyzes how institutional mandates have shaped organizational behavior, and how these mandates reflect the country’s social and cultural values. We analyze this premise in respect to the usage of the statement of cash flows by Japanese SMEs. The study relies on institutional theory and cultural values to help explain the results obtained from a survey questionnaire. We focus on financial reporting behavior when the SCF is a noncompulsory disclosure under SMEs general guidelines. We analyze different variables including intent to make a public offering and the number of professional accounting staff, and find firm size to be significantly associated with the recognition and production of the statement of cash flows. We believe that our findings will be useful to the Japanese government in designing SME economic guidance for capital growth to improve capabilities and ensure sustainability.
Keywords: Japanese SMEs, Statement of Cash Flows, Institutional Theory, Cultural Values, Voluntary Disclosure
Aksemsettin Mah. Kocasinan Cad.
Erenoglu Is Merkezi
Fatih – Istanbul, TURKEY
Email: [email protected]
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.