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Vol.4 No.2

June 2016

 Page Number

 Article Information

1-16

The Resource-Based View or Stakeholder Theory: Which Better Explains the Relationship Between Corporate Social Responsibility and Financial Performance?

Agata Adamska, Tomasz J. Dabrowski, and Anna Grygiel-Tomaszewska

DOI: 10.15604/ejbm.2016.04.02.001

Abstract

Stakeholder behavior and reputation are held to be the two main factors explaining the positive correlation between corporate social responsibility and financial performance. To date, however, researchers have not determined which of these factors is of greater significance. The results of this study indicate that the relative effects of stakeholder behavior and reputation are affected by market conditions. During a crisis, the former factor plays a greater role, while the latter becomes more prominent during the period of market recovery in the wake of a crisis. These findings have important practical ramifications as they provide guidance to companies on how to allocate their CSR budgets depending on the state of the economy to maximize their effect on the bottom line.

Keywords: Corporate Financial Performance (CFP), Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), Ethical Mutual Funds, Reputation, Resource-based View (RBV), Socially Responsible Investments (SRI), Stakeholders Theory

17-27

Environmental Management in the Coastal Urban Area of Kallithea in Attica Region

Agisilaos Economou and Roido Mitoula

DOI: 10.15604/ejbm.2016.04.02.002

Abstract

Nowadays the majority of coastal urban areas facing issues concerning economic growth in combination with environmental protection. These challenges have led local authorities to take immediate measures as well as the European Union to formulate new policies. This study refers to the environmental problems of the coastal urban area of Kallithea and on the measures that have been taken in response. Specifically, it focuses on land uses, natural resources and business. To conduct this study a method of personal interviews with the local authorities and an in situ research took place. At the same time, the survey focuses on action and policies that have been implemented until now regarding growth and improving of the quality of life. The results showed despite the problems the research area presents, it has dynamics for growth developments and revitalization. The implementation of new measures and new policies under the frame of sustainable development, taking into account the directives of European Union, is required.

Keywords: Environmental Management, Coastal Urban Area, Kallithea

28-40

Commitment and Burnout: Mediator Role of the “Emotional Labor”

Ayse Esmeray Yogun

DOI: 10.15604/ejbm.2016.04.02.003

Abstract

As an undeniable reality of the century, emotional labor is required spesifically in the caring services, where face to face contact is main characteristic of the provided service quality. It is a certain fact that hospitals in need of nurses with high commitment and low burnout more than ever to survive in the chaotic competition market. The main purpose of this paper is to examine the mediating role of the emotional labor on the relationship among nurses‟ commitment and burnout level. To get the required data, Emotional Labor Scale, The Maslach Burnout Inventoryand Allen and Meyer‟s Organizational Commitment Scale were used. 500 nurses in Turkey in March 2015-April 2015 were reached. For the analysis of the gathered data, AMOS program, Structural Equation Modeling analysis was employed. In this study it is found that there is a partial mediating role of the emotional labor on the relationship between commitment and burnout. And it is found that there is a negative and moderate impact of commitment on the burnout level of nurses. Finally, practical implications of the gathered results have been given at the end of the paper.

Keywords: Nurses, Caring, Emotional Labor, Organizational Commitment, Burnout, Mediating Impact

41-54

Fair Value Accounting and Earnings Management

Pei-Hui Hsu and Youan (Robert) Lin

DOI: 10.15604/ejbm.2016.04.02.004

Abstract

Many have argued that measuring financial instruments at fair value might not reflect firms’financial condition. Prior study finds that managers manipulate the “disclosure” of fair value measurement (Song et al. 2010). In this study, we attempt to provide evidence regarding manager’s incentive to manipulate the disclosure of fair value measurements by examining whether the disclosure of less relevant fair value measurement is related to the odds of earnings management. We find that firms with more Level 3 assets and liabilities (i.e., less value relevant fair value measurement) are more likely to recognize positive unrealized gains to meet or beat analyst forecast target. In addition, we find that only firms with weak corporate governance disclose more Level 3 fair value liabilities and recognize unrealized gains into reported earnings to meet or beat analyst forecast target. This evidence suggests that managers manipulate the disclosure of fair value measurement in order to manage reported earnings via the adoption of fair value option.

Keywords: Fair Value Option, Fair Value Measurement, FAS157, FAS159, Earnings Management

55-64

The Day of the Week Effect of Stock Returns: Empirical Evidence from Five Selected Arab Countries

Sedeaq Nassar

DOI: 10.15604/ejbm.2016.04.02.005

Abstract

This study examines the presence of one of the prominent anomalies which is the day of the week effect anomaly in five of Arab stock exchanges which are (Qatar, Amman, Palestine, Egypt, and Bahrain stock exchanges) cover the period from May 2010 to April 2014. By using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) analysis and Post Hoc Tests, the study indicates that there is no existence of the day of the week effect in each of (Qatar, Amman, Egypt, and Bahrain stock exchange) while it is presence in Palestine stock exchange where the lowest return is in Sunday (the first trading day of the week) and the highest return is in Tuesday.

Keywords: Market Efficiency, Efficient Market Hypothesis, Anomalies Effect

65-71

The Effect of Organizational Creativity on Team Performance Mediating Role of Self Organization and Team Perception in SMEs, Public and Private Sector

Nimet Eryigit and Tuna Uslu

DOI: 10.15604/ejbm.2016.04.02.006

Abstract

Self evaluation of the employees and teams do not just support to increase their knowledge about their work; but also make them produce creative ideas indirectly through increasing their intrinsic motivation. Results of the empirical surveys show that working environment and intrinsic motivation have mediation effects on the relationship between the creativity of the employees and teams with their performance. Previous studies remark that self evaluation ofthe employees has positive effects on company and small firm (SME’s) performance; butcreativity is another part of the company performance and the influences on company performance and creativity are different. This study, aim of which is to understand the mediating factors in the positive effects of creativity on company performance includes theoretical and empirical findings. Results of the study reveal that team perception and self organization have different mediating effects in the relationship between creativity and team performance. There are strong and positive relationships between organizational creativity and team perception and self-organization. These variables also affect team performance in the organizations positively. The positive effect of organizational creativity on team performance and self organization reflect to the team performance positively.

Keywords: Organizational Creativity, Self-Organization, Team Perception, Team Performance

72-80

Egotiation Is the New Negotiation: The Concept of Negotiation Revisited

Katarzyna Jagodzinska

DOI: 10.15604/ejss.2016.04.02.007

Abstract

The definition of negotiation has already been broadly examined in literature and varies from one author to another. However, there does not exist a complete conceptualization, which would grasp all the essential constituents of negotiation. This article aims to fill this niche by revisiting the concept of negotiation and broadening it by the elusive element that, if not properly addressed, too often causes negotiations to fail: the ego factor.Consequently, this paper introduces the novel concept of egotiation. The new conceptual framework provides a straightforward and user-friendly reference that can be used when preparing for a negotiation or at any time during a negotiation to help better understand all the dynamics behind the negotiation process.Furthermore, this article unravels what negotiation really is based on the responses collected from a multicultural audience, and shows how these results align with the novel concept of negotiation.

Keywords: Negotiation, Egotiation, Conflict Management, Verbal and Non-verbal Communication, Bargaining Power

81-94

Determination of Perceptions of Administrative Staff at Universities About Job Satisfaction – A Research on Mehmet Akif University

Huseyin Cicek and Huseyin Korkmazer

DOI: 10.15604/ejbm.2016.04.02.008

Abstract

Job satisfaction is one of most studied/researched subjects at the branch of management psychology. On the other hand, studies about job satisfaction level of administrative staff are very rare in Turkey. The aim of this study is to determine perceptions of administrative staff working at universities about job satisfaction. For this purpose, a survey study was performed with 200 administartive staff working at Mehmet Akif Ersoy University and surveys were evaluated with statistical analysis methods. As the result of analysis, job satisfaction level was found to be affected from management policy, nature of business and workmates.

Keywords: University, Staff, Job Satisfaction

95-105

The Role of Ethical Sensitivity and Self-Esteem on Academic Performance in Accounting Course

Emine Yilmaz Karakoc

DOI: 10.15604/ejbm.2016.04.02.009

Abstract

The main objective of the current study is to investigate whether ethical sensitivity and self- esteem affect the academic performance of business students in financial accounting course. Also, the relationships among self-esteem – ethical sensitivity – cynicism were examined. The data was gathered from students in undergraduate business program of one public university in Turkey via questionnaire. Factor, reliability and regression analyses were conducted to analyze the data and to test hypotheses of the study. The results showed that ethical sensitivity and self- esteem have positive effect on academic performance. Self–esteem has positive impact on ethical sensitivity. In addition, results displayed that cynicism negatively affects the ethical sensitivity of students. It was also found that ethical sensitivity has mediation effect on the relationship between self-esteem and academic performance.

Keywords: Accounting, Academic Performance, Ethical Sensitivity, Self-esteem, Cynicism

106-116

Roles of Interlocking Directorates in an Emerging Country: Control and Coordination in Family Business Groups

Aylin Ataay

DOI: 10.15604/ejbm.2016.04.02.010

Abstract

Maman (1999) proposed that, in countries in which business groups are dominant forms for organizing economic activities, the interlocking directorate is a managerial tool that can be prioritized to control and coordinate activities of their affiliated firms within the same groups and align their business objectives. This organizational connection appears to be an intentional strategy on the part of the groups‟ headquarters. In order to study the interlocking ties in Turkish family business groups (FBG), this study focused on interlocking directorates among listed firms in Turkey. The findings of preliminary study reveal that almost all of the interlocking ties were within the business groups (BG) in our sample. This is the result of assignment of family- affiliated and/or professional inside directors to the various boards of companies in the BG. We also found that compare to vertical ties; business groups are using more horizontal interlocking connections to bond their affiliated companies together.

Keywords: Interlocking Directorates, Business Groups, Turkish Family Business Groups, Emerging Markets

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