Roles and Responsibilities for School Role Players in Addressing Cyber Incidents in South Africa
Naume Sonhera, Elmarie Kritzinger, and Marianne Loock
Cyber incidents are causing major challenges for school officials who are called upon to respond to these incidents involving learners, globally. Online threats take place off the radar screen of educators and parents, and this makes it difficult to address cyber incidents in schools and more impossible to monitor off school premises. The overwhelming challenges in South African schools are that there are no clear roles and responsibilities for relevant role-players when handling cyber incidents. Therefore, this article is aimed to determine the responsibilities of role players in handling cyber incidents in South African schools. The research used a qualitative approach and purposive sampling to collect data from the learners, to get their experiences and perceptions on reporting cyber incidents. The rationale for selecting learners was based on the view that cyber aggression is a very concerning issue in the school environment. The research went on to document the responsibilities of various role-players, which include the school with its educators, principal and the learners, the Department of Basic Education, the community, and the parents. The article focused on highlighting the roles and responsibilities of role players when handling cyber incidents in South African Schools and the views of learners on adults when handling cyber incidents. The study concludes that if the role players seriously follow their roles and responsibilities, cyber incidents can be reduced in schools. It is also important to note that role players cannot work in isolation; rather, they need a coordinated approach to share the responsibilities, as cyber incidents are not restricted to the classroom or school grounds. This problem requires all role players to work together, in proactive ways to intervene and reduce cyber incidents.
Keywords: Cyber, Incident, Learner, Victim, Aggressor, School, Responsibilities, South Africa, Role Player, Framework
Democracy in Decline: Three Global Trends and How They Highlight the Case of “American Exceptionalism” and the Need to Re-Think IR Theory
Anton M. Pillay and Jeremiah Madzimure
Spurred on by emergency Covid-laws and the desire to defeat Covid-19 by any means necessary, governments globally are using their newfound powers to steadily diminish the level of democracy in their countries. This malfeasance is not only occurring in institutionally weak states but in traditionally strong democratic states. Deploying examples from across the globe, this paper highlights the decline in democracy from three perspectives, namely; the crackdown on opposition, censorship, and unabated corruption. As the pandemic drags on, these three issues are becoming more prominent and require contemplation. Exploration of these issues, configuratively described as “democracy in decline”, gives way to the latter part of this research; the idea that America is exempt from democracy, a condition known as American exceptionalism. American exceptionalism, in part, claims that the US is the world’s strongest democracy, global democratic torchbearer, and a government worthy of being imitated. Using the November 2020 US Presidential elections as the litmus test, this research shows that American democracy is far from its righteous claim propagated in International Relations (IR) theory. The impetus is then on students and practitioners of IR to pluralize the field. The study is valid because the term democracy is being used as a wallpaper to disguise illiberal strategies.
Keywords: Democracy in Decline, Covid-19, American Exceptionalism, IR Theory
Financial Education from the Perspective of University Students: Comparative Study
The importance of financial literacy has rapidly increased in the last decades. The critical need for sustainable financial decisions is driven by changes in the economy. The goal of this study was to find out how the university students rate their acquired financial knowledge and knowledge providers, with the purpose to find solutions for promoting personal financial education to promote financial literacy. The study used Explanatory sequential mixed methods design, in which a quantitative part of study was conducted among 1110 participants, followed by a qualitative part with a sample of 22 students. Students at universities of technology from two neighboring countries, Estonia, and Finland, participated in the survey. The data were collected in a quantitative part through a questionnaire survey and in a qualitative part during three focus groups. Based on the results of the quantitative survey, questions and participants were purposefully selected for the qualitative phase in order to explain the content of the quantitative results. The results showed that students’ interest to improve their financial literacy was high. The assessments revealed that most important financial knowledge provider was the family, and the university came next. The obstacle that was most mentioned in the pursuit of pre-university education, was a lack of interest in obtaining financial knowledge, which was largely due to boring teachers and learning material. The article presents students’ assessments, opinions, and suggestions, and contributes to the literature on Mixed Methods Research (MMR) by describing the procedure how the solutions to the research problem was found.
Keywords: Personal Financial Literacy, Financial Education, Higher Education Students, Gender Differences, Mixed Methods Research (MMR)
The Impact of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation on Teachers’ Performance: Evidence from Selected TVET Colleges in Lagos, Nigeria
Adeniyi Adeshina Olushola and Samson Adeoluwa Adewumi
Teachers play an important role in the development of human capital by nurturing and building the intellectual capacity of learners. Academic research revealed that teachers, particularly in Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET) colleges are faced with array of challenges constricting the drive towards equipping students with the appropriate practical skills as a result of dwindling motivation. Previous studies in the canon of motivation and performance studies have largely focused on industrial organizations and financial institutions with a sparse attention on teachers of TVET colleges of education in Nigeria. The paper seeks to stimulate the important discourse of motivation as a pathway to the realization of effective teachers’ performance in Nigeria’s TVET colleges of education. The Multiple Case research design was employed with a total of 120 teachers recruited from three selected TVET colleges. Findings revealed that intrinsic motivation has no significant association with teachers’ performance. A positive and significant association exists between extrinsic motivation and teachers’ performance. Amongst all other factors of motivation, total basic salary package appears to be the most impactful motivating factor for teachers. The study makes a case that for a proactive and robust teachers’ performance, TVET must appreciate and harness effective extrinsic motivational strategies for viable teachers’ performance.
Keywords: Intrinsic, Extrinsic, Motivation, Teachers’ Performance, TVET Colleges, Education
Challenges Faced by Social Workers Dealing with Victims and Survivors of Natural Disasters
Matlakala Frans Koketso, Nyahunda Louis, and Makhubele Jabulani Calvin
Social work practice is a very unique profession and its domain of practice has grown beyond the known traditional one. Due to its wider scope, social workers are seen as frontline workers during natural disasters. The aim of this paper was to explore the challenges faced by social workers dealing with victims and survivors of natural disasters. The study adopted qualitative research approach and exploratory research design. Five social workers were purposively sampled to form part of individual semi-structured interview from Tzaneen Municipality. Data was collected until the level of saturation and analyzed thematically. The study revealed that social workers lack resources and proper training to deal with the victims and survivors of natural disasters. Moreover, the study found that there is poor inter-professional collaboration, role ambiguity and shortage of staff when disasters erupt. The study concludes that social workers are understaffed, have too much workload and are likely to experience burnout in their effort to assist victims and survivors of natural disasters. To that end, the study recommends that Department of Social Development should employ more social workers so that they can to respond during and after natural disasters.
Keywords: Social Work, Natural Disasters, Victims, Survivors, Inter-Professional Collaboration
Aksemsettin Mah. Kocasinan Cad.
Erenoglu Is Merkezi
Fatih – Istanbul, TURKEY
Email: [email protected]
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.