The Economy of Healthcare: Disparity of Insured/Uninsured Profiles among European Immigrants in the United States
Rohitha Goonatilake and Susantha Herath
Immigration over the last seven years has been the highest for any seven-year period in the history of the United States (US), totaling 10.3 million immigrants. Of which, it is estimated that more than 50% are accounted as immigrants without legal status, according to the Center for Immigration Studies in Washington (Camarota, 2002). Data gathered in early 2000 provides a glimpse of the situation to bring in the disparity of insured and uninsured among European immigrants in the United States as the 9/11 attacks, the Obama care (the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA), or Affordable Care Act (ACA) for short), and the (DREAM Act of 2010) the Development, Relief and Education for Alien Minors Act have significantly changed the patterns and profiles of this phenomenon as someone would shed light on the situation. This paper compares and contrasts the extent of health insurance coverage for the citizens, naturalized citizens, and non-citizens as identified in terms of the world regions of birth, of course, for the European descendants. Finally, the analysis is concluded by examining the extent of health insurance coverage among all foreign born population based on race, educational attainment, and family income in 2005.
Keywords: Immigrants to the US, European Immigrants, Health Insurance Coverage, Foreign Born Population
Introducing Union Representation and Its Complexities – A Case Study of the Royal Thai Civil Service
This paper deals with the result of the recognition under the ILO Conventions 87 and 98 of the freedom of association and subsequent introduction of union representation in the Royal Thai civil service. As a consequence, the Royal Thai Government has changed the Constitution to allow for union representation in its civil service. A decree has been drafted and focus groups have been interviewed to establish the views of a cross-section of civil servants on their expectations and desires in being allowed to form and join a union. The paper discusses the approach taken to union representation in terms of collective bargaining versus joint consultation and centralization versus decentralization and the discourse that has surfaced as a result of the interviews between the policy makers and civil servants, particularly with regard to its context of a high power distance culture. The analysis provides the best practice and effective approach to the introduction of union representation within the Thai Civil Service.
Keywords: Thailand, Royal Thai Civil Service, Freedom of Association, Union, Representation, Collective Bargaining, Joint Consultation
Political Participation: A Latent Variable Approach Testing Measurement Equivalence of Political Participation Using ESS Data
Theoretical definitions refer to political participation as multi-faceted. While some authors introduce up to twenty different kinds of behavior to measure political action, political participation is measured in surveys like ESS, WVS or EVS by a limited number of activities. Most of the researchers of political participation use composite scores for measuring political participation. The main aim of this research was to test (i) “whether political participation can be measured as a latent construct?” and (ii) “is this construct measurement equivalent across different countries or different time points?” Using the 5th round of ESS data and the alignment procedure, I measured cross-country comparability of political participation as a bi-dimensional construct with 2 latent factors: institutional and non-institutional participation. Results showed that for the vast majority of ESS countries, the data reflect the theoretical construct of political participation. Furthermore, I compared between the time points within each country and I found that, with few exceptions, the ESS countries show temporal invariance regarding the political participation construct. Both results suggest that political participation can be treated as latent variable and allow us further cross-cultural comparisons.
Keywords: Political Participation, Institutionalized Political Action, Non-Institutionalized Protest, Measurement Equivalence
Integrating Cultural Heritage into Contemporary Life – The Perspective of Local Communities: The Case of Arcadia, Greece
Alexandra Lappa and Evangelia Georgitsoyanni
The current study aims to highlight the importance of integrating cultural heritage into contemporary life as a means to contribute to the economic and tourism development of a historical area and as an asset to local development. The study focuses on the cultural goods of Arcadia in central Peloponnese, Greece, an area of great history and rich architectural heritage, which gives a distinct cultural identity to the region. The overall objective of the current research is to describe how the different kinds of cultural benefits, derived by tourism, are perceived by the local community. A questionnaire based survey, conducted in Arcadia during the period 2012-2014, demonstrates that the locals strongly support the promotion of the architectural richness of the region in order to become an attraction for visitors, contributing both to the improvement of the quality of life, as well as the economic and tourism development of the area. The survey results confirm that cultural tourism is seen as an opportunity to contribute to the economic and cultural sustainability of the area and the local community. The implementation of a linear regression model shows that education is the key factor influencing the residents’ view regarding the promotion of cultural tourism in the region.
Keywords: Cultural Heritage, Cultural Tourism, Monuments, Arcadia, Local Community
The Effects of Import Competition on Employment and Wages in the Manufacturing Industry of Turkey
Guzin Emel Akkus
This paper investigates the effect of import competition on employment and wages in the 18 sectors of the Turkish manufacturing industry using panel data methodology over the 2003-2011 period. The industry import unit value indexes are used in order to measure import competition for the industries. The estimation results of two stages squares method suggest that changes in import values have a significant effect on employment in the sectors of manufacturing industry. However, this study can not find a significant relationship between import competition and industry wages.
Keywords: Import Competition, Employment, Wages, Labour Market, Panel Data Techniques
ICT for Collaborative Lifelong Learning to Sustainable Economic Development of EU
Alina-Mihaela Ion and Dragos Vespan
There is a constant attention paid in European Union to increasing the quality of life and the quality of services provided to citizens, to human development, sustainable development and economic growth. This paper highlights the importance of applying information and communication technology in education as one of the main pillars of a strong society, as it is responsible for staff training and hence for the increase of quality of services in all areas. Technological progress is reflected in education through the diversification of educational services and through the high quality of their provision to all actors implied in the educational process, either instructors or students. Everyone benefits from a permanently optimized environment with a constantly growing flexibility. The analysis conducted in the article aims to research the impact of information and communication technology on society through data series and meaningful graphical representations. Educational field represents one of the most important elements in the transformation of Europe into the most competitive and dynamic knowledge based economy in the world, which promotes a sustainable economic development, as the representatives of European Higher Education Area member countries publicly announced their intentions since 2003 in the Berlin Communique in Germany.
Keywords: Lifelong Learning, Collaborative Learning, Information Technology and Communication, Economic Sustainable Development
Aksemsettin Mah. Kocasinan Cad.
Erenoglu Is Merkezi
Fatih – Istanbul, TURKEY
Email: [email protected]
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.