Consortium Agreements as a Way for Joint Bidding for a Public Contract in the Polish Public Procurement Law
New EU directives on awarding public contracts do not introduce a single regulation on joint bidding for a public contract. Nevertheless, in many EU member states (such as France, the UK, Finland), there are separate regulations for consortium agreements between entrepreneurs. These regulations are quite similar due to harmonization of provisions concerning the public procurement market in the EU. Therefore, such agreements are fully, legally, and economically justified and there are no convincing reasons for declaring such agreements invalid. It should be emphasized that the conclusion of a consortium agreement in order to bid jointly for a public contract is intended to contribute complementarily to the success of the common business undertaking. The successful achievement of the aim requires a joint action of two or more entities and synergy, which result from such a combination and guarantee a suitable value added. The advantages of two models of consortia, i.e. a centralized model and a decentralized model, are broadly discussed. The paper supports the view that a consortium agreement seems to be a relatively flexible instrument of cooperation between entities when jointly bidding for awarding a public contract.
Keywords: Consortium, Consortium Agreement, Public Order, Public Procurement Law, Successful Bidder
Effects of Individual Characteristics and Compensation on Doctors’ Satisfaction of Private Hospital in Palembang, Indonesia
Muhammad Taufik Roseno, Syamsurijal Abdul Kadir, Agustina Hanafi, and Zunaidah
The purpose of this study is to analyze the influence of individual characteristics and compensation on the satisfaction of doctors at the private hospital in Palembang , Indonesia. The data used are primary data with respondents of specialist doctors, general practitioners and dentists who completed a questionnaire survey. A Questionnaire was designed and distributed among 300 doctors of private hospital in Palembang. 90 questionnaire were returned and 70 of them were used for data analysis. A multiple regression technique is used to analyze the data which resulted that individual characteristic and compensation have a positive and significant effect to doctors’ job satisfaction. It is expected that doctors would provide more optimal services to patients and society by increasing the facility and infrastructure of the hospitals.
Keywords: Individual Characteristics, Compensation, Doctor’s Job Satisfaction
Cultural Landscape Values of Gokceada (Imbros)
Ayse Ceren Guler and Yegan Kahya
Gokceada has cultural landscape values that have been shaped with the limited physical conditions and cultural factors of being an island and also reflect the relationship between man and nature from past to present. However, the physical, economic and social balances that have changed in the recent years cause these values to be damaged and even destroyed. One of the most important reasons for this destruction is the lack of awareness about conservation. The concept of “cultural landscape”, which attracts attention to the interaction between “nature” and “culture”, used to define and protect areas that represent the development processes of cultures and settlements shaped by social, economic and cultural influences under the certain physical conditions brought by the natural environment. In this paper, Gokceada’s natural and cultural values will be considered and defined within the concept of cultural landscape which provides an integrated view to all components of these values.
Keywords: Gokceada, Cultural Landscape, Cultural Landscape Values, Cultural Heritage, Conservation, Integrated Conservation
Russian Role in Syria in the Light of its Strategy towards the Middle East (2015-2018)
Zeinab A. Ahmed
This paper contributes to the analysis the Russian strategy in the Middle East focusing on its acts in Syria. The paper raises crucial issues concerning the main aspects of Russian strategy in the ME; its motives to intervene in Syria, the relationship between Russian engagement in the conflict in Syria and the Russian-US rivalry, as well as Russian-European relations, the Russian successes and failures in Syria and how Russia’s role in Syria may affect both regional and global regimes. The analysis in this paper seeks to discuss these thorny issues through a structured literature review of Russian strategy objectives and determinants in the Middle East, and its role in Syrian conflict.
Keywords: Russia Intervention In Syria, Russian Strategy in the Middle East, Regional Hegemony, Western Concessions, Ukrainian Issue, US-Russian Relations
Aksemsettin Mah. Kocasinan Cad.
Erenoglu Is Merkezi
Fatih – Istanbul, TURKEY
Email: [email protected]
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.