Public Sport Governance in Theory and Practice: Managing and Organizing Public Sport Sector with a Comparatıve Analysis of Baltic States and Scotland
Contemporary public sport governance takes place in a very different context than that of past decades. The public sport governance is comprised of a variety of basic aspects that build its managerial basis – legislative base, funding allocation and long-term strategic development. The research problem presented is the seeming ambiguity of the variety of theoretical aspects of public sport governance that define the real-life practice of various public sport governance systems across countries. The aim of research was to examine and analyze the theoretical aspects of public sport governance and to determine the practical differences through the comparative analysis of the public sport governance systems of the Baltic States and Scotland. The research was conducted using monographic and content analysis method to research the variety of theoretical aspects, while the comparative analysis method was applied to compare the public sport governance cases of the chosen countries. The main results of the research present that the available theoretical aspects of public sport governance enable a practical research to be conducted on a wider and detailed scale. The results proved that even the slightest difference between countries within their legal framework could prove its intention in furthering sport sector’s promotion. A definition of the term “public sport governance” was developed and proposed. It could be used in further research of the conceptual and practical understanding within the public governance, policy, sport management, economics and sport law fields as crucial part of the overall public sport governance within the national, regional and international economic framework.
Keywords: Sport Governance, Public Sport Governance Structure, Public Sport Management
The Relationship between Political Risk and Employment in Tourism: A Case of South Africa
Jean Claude Manaliyo
Political risk is one of the determinants of employment in the tourism industry. Changes in the level of political risk in a country result in fluctuations in employment in the tourism sector. Countries with a high level of political risk experience a decline in employment whereas countries with a low level of political risk experience an increase in employment. This paper investigates the impact of political risk on employment in South Africa’s tourism industry using quarterly time series data for the period between 2007 and 2017. The study employs the Autoregressive Distribution Lag (ARDL) model to determine the impact of political risk on employment in tourism in both the short- and long-run. The results from the analysis reveal that political risk has both short- and long-run effects on employment in South Africa’s tourism industry. When the level of political risk declines by 1%, employment grows by 5.016% in the long-run whereas employment increases by 1.51% in the short-run when the level of political risk declines by 1%. These results imply that governments have to keep the level of political risk low by avoiding political risk events and actions for the tourism industry to create additional employment opportunities.
Keywords: ARDL Model, Employment, Political Risk, Tourism, South Africa
Economic Evaluation of Preventive Healthcare: A Cost Benefit Analysis of a Parenting Program
Nina Ponikvar, Marija Anderluh, Eva Strmljan Kreslin, and Mojca Marc
The positive impact of parenting programs on the health and wellbeing of individuals and their immediate community has been confirmed in many studies. Often, and especially during the Covid-19 pandemics, prevention health programs are stalled due to other policy priorities. Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) can be used for the economic evaluation of public health programs to support evidence-based health policies and allows the comparison of the monetized effects of programs across different societal domains. However, CBA requires a variety of data that are typically difficult to obtain. Using the Incredible Years (IY) parenting program case, we illustrate how CBA can be practically applied. For parenting programs, the positive effects arise exclusively in non-monetary form as benefits arising from avoiding adverse effects in society. We show how to monetize them by estimating the avoided costs of healthcare, educational, and other societal costs due to the program’s implementation. At a 4% social discount rate, the economic net present value is positive and high, showing that the present value of the program’s benefits exceeds the costs of the program by almost €800 thousand. The benefit-to-cost index of 5.6 confirms that every € invested in the program brings benefits of €5.6 in monetary terms. Cost-benefit analysis provides a convincing foundation for distributing public funds as it allows for a comparison of field-related programs and programs from different fields. Consequently, they increase any public policy’s effectiveness and efficiency, but especially preventive health policy.
Keywords: Economic Evaluation, Cost-Benefit Analysis, Parenting Programs, Incredible Years
Identifying Behavioral Constructs in Relation to User Cybersecurity Behavior
Thulani Mashiane and Elmarie Kritzinger
A behavior such as enabling two factor authentication has a positive impact on a users’ information security. It is assumed that given the benefits, users will want to perform this cybersecurity related behavior. However, some users choose not to perform the beneficial security behavior. Varied explanations have been provided as to why users choose to perform or not perform cybersecurity behaviors. The factors that influence users in the decision making of whether to perform or not perform a cybersecurity related behavior are referred to as constructs. This study seeks to combine the results of selected studied, with the aim of identifying prominent user cybersecurity behavior constructs, as well as the relationships between the constructs. The contributions made by the study is the consolidated visualization of behavior constructs that have an influence on user cybersecurity behavior. Furthermore, the study also provides practical applications of the cybersecurity behavior constructs. To achieve the goals of the study, a literature review is used as the study methodology. Data from previous studies is systematically collected, and analyzed. The study makes use of the Theoretical Domains Theory as a tool, which aids in consolidating the different behavior constructs found in cybersecurity literature. The constructs Beliefs about Capabilities, Beliefs about Consequences, Reinforcements, Social Influences, Intentions, Emotions, Social/Professional Role and Identity, Knowledge and Skills are found to have influence on cybersecurity behavior.
Keywords: Cybersecurity, Behavior, Construct, Theoretical Domains Framework
Aksemsettin Mah. Kocasinan Cad.
Erenoglu Is Merkezi
Fatih – Istanbul, TURKEY
Email: [email protected]
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.