Local Government Planning for Social Benefits with Example of Hannover City
Judyta Kabus, Radomir Kana, Ireneusz Miciula, and Joanna Nowakowska-Grunt
Social legislation contributes to the provision of worthy existence of citizens, creates equal conditions for free personal development, particularly for young people, it protects and promotes the family, it enables acquisition of resources for maintaining a household with means of a freely selected activity, as well as it prevents from emerging particular burdens for units in the society. Purpose of this paper is to present an efficient and successful social planning pursued by German local governments, with the example of Hannover city. An additional effect of this article is an indication that you should definitely make social plans by governments, but in the proper relationship and the consequences in relation to the real capitalist economy. At various stages, in the development of local communities, this intervention should be of different sizes. This article was developed on the basis of the studied literature in the area of management, organization and planning of social activities in administration units in Germany and quantitative data sets available through the institutions of the European Union.
Keywords: Social Policy, Social Benefits, Management, Poverty, Social Planning, Hannover
An Examination of the Mediation Processes of International ADR Institutions and the Evaluation of the Turkish Construction Professionals’ Perspectives on Mediation
Yaprak Arici Ustuner and Elcin Tas
Mediation is an alternative dispute resolution that is fast and economic, based on volunteerism and offers the parties win-win approaches and also protects relationships among the dispute parties. Also comparing with the other ADR methods, mediation is easy to apply and less formal. In this respect, this alternative dispute resolution is suitable for the construction sector. In Turkey, mediation began to spread with the adoption of the “Mediation in Legal Disputes Act and Regulations” in 2012. In 2014, Istanbul Arbitration Centre was established. This institution has a mediation service. However, this service is not as advanced or sectoral divided as the procedures of ADR institutions providing mediation services in the world. The literature on the use of mediation in the construction sector in Turkey is very limited and there is no study investigating the perspectives of Turkish construction professionals on institutions providing mediation services. This study aims to examine the structures of ADR institutions providing construction mediation services in the world and the benefits provided by these institutions throughout the mediation process. In this study, a brief explanation about structures of the chosen institutions AAA-ICDR (American Arbitration Association-International Centre for Dispute Resolution), CEDR (Centre for Effective Dispute Resolution) and JAMS (Judicial Arbitration and Mediation Services), which are prominent ADR institutions providing construction mediation services will be given. After that, their mediation processes will be examined. Furthermore, the advantages and disadvantages of non-institutional and institutional mediation will be analyzed by comparing them. In the last part, a survey’s result will be shared searching the answers for following points: the dispute reasons that are experienced by Turkish construction professionals, the criteria of selection of the dispute resolution methods, whether they use mediation in the construction sector, the perspectives on institutions providing mediation services and the expected services from these institutions.
Keywords: ADR, Construction Mediation, ADR Institutions, Mediation Institutions
Relationship between Customer Satisfaction and Customer Loyalty: A Review and Future Directions of its Nature and Approaches
Ahmad Saifalddin Abu-Alhaija, Hosni Shareif Hussein, and Almothanna Jamil Abu Allan
This paper discusses the special relationship between customer satisfaction and customer loyalty. It highlights the significance of studying such relationship via appropriate moderators. This may contribute towards understanding the nature and strength of the relationship. Examining the indirect influences of customer satisfaction on loyalty towards a product or service may highlight obscure relationships. This study concludes that the relationship between satisfaction and loyalty is, at times, beyond a straightforward one. The relationship may include specific moderating factors, depending on customers’ characteristics, such as, psychographic, cultural, and religious factors. This paper finds that a marketing approach, which is, in line with Islamic values, is essential in order to satisfy and retain religious customers. It is hoped that the propositions provided in this study could inspire marketing scholars to develop sound models in understanding the relationship between customer satisfaction and customer loyalty.
Keywords: Customer Loyalty, Satisfaction, Islamic Marketing
Regulation of the Energy Sector in France and its Judicial Review
This paper concerns the activity of the French regulatory authority. The French Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission de Régulation de l’Energie) is an independent public authority, which aims at ensuring the proper functioning of the market of gas and electricity. Its activity safeguards proper operation of the electricity and gas market in France. The makeup, structure and independence of CRE comply with the UE requirements for regulating infrastructural sectors. Attention will be paid to its tasks concerning access to public networks of electrical energy and natural gas installations. The competences in terms of market regulation in France will be characterized. The catalogue of administrative decisions of regulatory nature will be presented, among others, concerning the rules for connecting to the network and operating system tasks. Particular attention will be paid to judicial review of those decisions exercised by the Court of Appeal in Paris (Cour d’Appel de Paris).
Keywords: Energy Law, French Law, Regulation of Infrastructure Sectors
Aksemsettin Mah. Kocasinan Cad.
Erenoglu Is Merkezi
Fatih – Istanbul, TURKEY
Email: [email protected]
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.