The Impact of Digital Marketing on the Development of Tourism in Republic of Albania
Teuta Veseli-Kurtishi and Edlira Ruci
The tremendous growth of tourism in Albania in recent decades, made important the understanding of the role that digital marketing and mobile technology is playing in this field. Tourism in Albania is one of the most important economic sectors of the country, and is growing year after year. It is emphasized that digitalization is a new form of communication between producers and consumers of tourism services, becoming a source of competitive advantages for tourism organizations. The main goal of the study is to give us a clear overview of the use of the Internet, information technologies and digital marketing in Albania. For the realization of this study, we used a methodology that combines primary data with secondary ones. The research was conducted through questionnaires that were sent to Albanian travel agencies via email. The questionnaire contains 17 questions, and was sent to 150 travel agencies, of which 102 agencies responded. Regarding the study, digital marketing plays an important role in improving the image of Albanian tourism throughout the world. It has created facilities in the way of doing marketing and reducing the costs of businesses. Through digital marketing, travel agencies have managed to promote our country online, personalize services and, above all, be closer to customers. The research found that the most effective digital marketing tools used by the agencies are Instagram and Facebook.
Keywords: Marketing, Digital Marketing, Travel Agency, Costumer, Promotion, Albania
Religion and Immigrant Occupational Attainment across Social Integration Contexts in Finland
Richard Ondicho Otiso
This article focuses on expanding the existing knowledge on contextual social integration of immigrants based on religion and occupational attainment. Drawing on the theory of social exchange, it identifies that immigrant religion in Finland serves as a marker of ethnic structures and social identify for minority groups of groups. Religion is the main social identity that provides an institutional belongingness that provides access to tangible resources. These claims are supported by a systematic literature review of prior scholarly work that have investigated the area of religion, migration, and social integration. Using empirical data obtained from interviews conducted on selected number of immigrants living in Helsinki, Finland, this article analyzes the effects of religion across social integration contexts in relation to immigrant occupational attainment. Analysis of the interviews find out to a limited extent that in immigrant religious circles social integration is enhanced and there are high chances of connection to occupational opportunities. Similarly, there is an association of discrimination in structural social integration in case of immigrant strong religious expressions. By contrast, this article found out that in case of matching immigrant and natives’ religious practice religious participation and attendance seems to be positively associated with occupational attainment.
Keywords: Social Integration, Occupational Attainment, Religion, Immigrant, Migration
Financial Securities for Tour Operators in Case of Insolvency Resulting from the Directive 2015/2302 of the European Parliament and of the Council which are in Force in Poland
The insolvency of travel agencies is dealt with in a special way by the EU legislator. European Union law introduces legal solutions for the benefit of consumers insofar as the relevant services are not performed by organizers as a consequence of its insolvency. The current 2015/2302 Directive provides much more comprehensive protection than 90/314/EWG Directive for travelers in the event of insolvency of a tour operator. However, in the past, in the practical functioning of travel agencies, it has repeatedly turned out that the Polish legislation has not been able to guarantee full protection provided for in EU law. This situation has changed. In Poland, since August 1, 2018 the system of security and financial guarantees in the event of insolvency of organizers and traders facilitating linked travel arrangements consists of two pillars. If Pillar I funds are exhausted, the costs of actions taken by the Marshal of the Province related to the repatriation of the customers of an insolvent tour operator will be covered from Pillar II, which is created from contributions to the Tourist Guarantee Fund. Due to the COVID pandemic, another form of security was introduced in Poland from January 1, 2021 – Tourist Assistance Fund. The fund is designed to support tourism entrepreneurs in the event of extraordinary circumstances. The aim of the paper is to present the legal regulations in force in Poland in the field of financial security of tour operators in the event of their insolvency and to analyze whether these solutions sufficiently protect the interests of travelers. Conclusions included in the paper justify the statement that the extension of the security system by Pillar II make the full protection possible. The two-pillar solution should be sufficient in case of insolvency of a travel agency and that it fully implements the EU recommendations.
Keywords: Package Travel Directive, Financial Securities, Insolvency, Package Travel Contract, Travel Market
Cure for Corruption: a High HDI Score?
Subarna Samanta and Rajib Sanyal
This study examines the relationship between human development and corruption in a country. A multivariate statistical analysis drawing on data from the Human Development Index (HDI) and Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) for 41 countries over a 28-year period indicates that increases in a country’s HDI score is associated with significant declines in perceived corruption in that country. However, this relationship is not linear; above a certain point, improvements in HDI scores do not lead to further falls in corruption levels. For countries with lower levels of human development, investments in healthcare, education, and living standards can markedly reduce the extent of corrupt conduct there.
Keywords: Corruption Perceptions Index, Human Development Index, Human Development, Bribery, Corruption, Mixed Model Estimation and Copula Estimation
Aksemsettin Mah. Kocasinan Cad.
Erenoglu Is Merkezi
Fatih – Istanbul, TURKEY
Email: [email protected]
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.