Emerging Economies: Comparative Analysis of MIST and IBSA Countries
Gonca Oguz Gok and Mehmet Sahin Gok
Post Second World War liberal economic order and its institutions have been challenged with the rapidly growing powerful economies of some Asian and Latin American countries in the last decade. Yet, there is ambiguity in international political economy field with regard to conceptualizing and categorizing these emerging economies. This study mainly aims to ravel out this obstacle by offering a new quantitative benchmarking framework. In other words, this study proposes a new evaluation criteria set for assessing emerging economies with combining testable domestic and systematic factors. Accordingly, this study presents the cross-country comparison by using quantitative benchmarking analysis between IBSA -India, Brazil and South Africa- and MIST -Mexico, Indonesia, South Korea and Turkey- countries over the period 2008-2012. We compare these countries based on the criteria of economic growth, human development index, foreign direct investment, and official development assistance. This study also aims to evaluate the group performance of these newly emerging economies- namely the rise of IBSA and MIST countries-in a comparative perspective. In conclusion, the performance of these countries -from both group-of-country and individual-country perspectives- are discussed in light of the results.
Keywords: Emerging Economies, IBSA, MIST, Benchmarking, Quantitative Analysis
Comparative Study of Health Status between Countries along the New Silk Road
Ju’e Yan, Yanli Li, JianminGao, Leilei Du, and Zhiying Zhou
Using World Statistics Data from the year 2012, health status differences between countries along the “New Silk Road” were compared and analyzed. Life expectancy at birth, life expectancy at age 60, healthy life expectancy, neonatal mortality rate, infant mortality rate, under-five mortality rate, maternal mortality ratio, as well as certain disease incidence rates were used. The study indicated that the 12 countries along the New Silk Road had longer life expectancy at birth. Females had longer life expectancy at birth than males, but life expectancy at age 60 was shorter than the global average, and healthy life expectancy at birth was also shorter. Maternal health status was generally good in each country. China, Russia, and 4 other countries had better children’s health status than India, Tajikistan, Pakistan, and Afghanistan. Non-communicable diseases caused higher mortality than communicable diseases and accidental injuries. However, the age standardized mortality rates of communicable diseases in India, Tajikistan, Pakistan, and Afghanistan were still relatively high. Communicable diseases were also the leading cause of reduction in life expectancy. Tuberculosis had a more significant impact on health status. In conclusion, health status varies among the New Silk Road countries. Countries including China and Iran have relatively better health status, and non-communicable diseases were the predominant risk factor impacting health. However, in countries such as India and Afghanistan, mortality caused by communicable diseases is still prominent. Under the current trend of globalization, New Silk Road countries are supposed to collaborate to expand their healthcare systems, and improve the health conditions for their people.
Keywords: New Silk Road Countries, Health Status, Comparative Study
Work-Related Cultural Values of Japanese and Czech Students
Companies are very often confronted with external and internal cultural diversity to which they have to respond adequately. We need a deeper understanding of whether national cultures remain divergent in countries such as Japan and the Czech Republic following the pressures of globalization. One can argue that as cultures evolve they should constantly be assessed e.g., with respect to each of Hofstede‟s dimensions. By collecting data from one Eastern-European culture, the Czech Republic, and one Eastern culture, Japan, this study has re-examined Hofstede‟s (1984; 2001) cultural dimensions in these two cultures. Results suggest interesting changes have occurred in these cultures; a trend towards convergence may be derived. Explanations as well as implications are discussed.
Keywords: Cross Cultural Studies, Cultural Values, Convergence, Comparative Analysis
Government Size versus Government Efficiency: In a Model of Economic Growth
Francisca Guedes de Oliveira
We develop a Solow type growth model where firms produce a single homogenous good using labor, private capital and a public good. The “amount” of public good depends on current government spending and government quality. Quality is the result of the accumulation of public capital. Governments charge distortionary taxes and provide the public good, investing also in “quality” by accumulating public capital. We analyze how the composition of government spending between current expenditures and quality affects the equilibrium levels. We aim to understand the difference in terms of steady state levels between leviathan, quality driven and benevolent governments.
Keywords: Solow Model, Government Efficiency, Public Capital, Economic Growth
Post-Structural Relational Ethics of Teacher-Student: A Theoretical Analysis of Jacques Derrida and Luce Irigaray
Soo Bin Jang
This paper explores the ethics of difference and becomingness as the foundation of teacherstudent relationship in contemporary school context. Based on the conception of difference of the French post-structural philosopher, Jacques Derrida, and the Belgian psychoanalytic thinker and feminist, Luce Irigaray, I suggest the relational ethics, which does not efface each student’s uniqueness as a mean to arrive at more inclusive and potentiality-embracing education practice. I problematize the binary discursive structure within the Western philosophical tradition and the resulting closure of potentiality in education. In order to overcome the closure of potentiality, I reviewed the deconstructive strategies of Derrida and Irigaray by examining how they conceptualized difference and the essence of being. Based on their theory, I suggest that teacher and student relationship need to embrace post-structural relational ethics. I conclude by posing the idea of educative space as dwelling for difference and becomingness.
Keywords: Derrida, Irigaray, Différance, Sexual Difference, Teacher-Student Relationship, Post-structural Relational Ethics
A Study on Limitation of Government Initiative Model for Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Promotion in China
Chinese responsibility for reducing Greenhouse Gas or carbon dioxide emission increases continuously. Chinese government suggested two targets; Alternative Fuel Vehicle output volume 500 thousand and AFV market share 5% by the end of 2011. However any of two targets did not come true. Therefore this study accessed the question, ‘why Chinese government initiative model for AFV promotion has been so poor?’ This study reviewed the transition process for AFV policies in China and made a structural analysis for three key policies since 2009. As a result the number of articles for related industries or factor endowments was relatively more than firm strategy or demand conditions. Also this study accessed the AFV strategy of Six SOEs from the perspective of social responsibility. Six SOEs have more concentrated on electric vehicle rather than hybrid vehicle with following the government leadership. However major EV or HEV models of them mostly were made by Joint Ventures being under control of foreign makers and the JVs have actually controlled over AFV business. So the limitation of Chinese government initiative model resulted from supplier-centric approach with targeting for public transportation and institution consumer, and it caused a failure to create the demand conditions of general customers.
Keywords: China’s Automobile Industry, Alternative Fuel Vehicle of China, Electric Vehicle, Hybrid Electric Vehicle
Aksemsettin Mah. Kocasinan Cad.
Erenoglu Is Merkezi
Fatih – Istanbul, TURKEY
Email: [email protected]
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.