Emotion Management in Small Hotels: Meeting the Challenges of Flexibility and Informality
This paper shows that in small hotels, hotel owners interpret ‘hospitality’ more broadly than mere commercial concerns. Hoteliers engage with three interdependent hospitality domains, commercial, social and private (Lashley, 2000), an approach that enables them to perceive guest interactions as informal; characterised by hoteliers wanting to ‘know’ and ‘relate to’ their guests. The findings here, drawn from a study of small hotels in the UK, show how owners manage this form of the ‘host-guest relationship’ (Tucker, 2003) by employing a range of emotion management strategies. These mirror Bolton’s 4Ps framework (2009) of pecuniary, professional, presentational and philanthropic emotion management roles. Adopting this fluid approach, rather than relying on emotional labour (Hochschild, 1983), enables the hoteliers to respond flexibly to meet the needs of their different types of guest. The findings in this paper validate Bolton’s argument (2005) for using agential flexible emotion management that captures but goes beyond emotional labour.
Keywords: Emotion Management, Emotional Labour, Host-Guest Relationship, Hospitality, Informality, Small Hotels, Flexibility
The Adriatic-Ionian Macroregion in the Eurasian Socio-economic Future
Carlo Carboni and Francesco Orazi
This paper discusses the economic and social potential enabled by the Adriatic Ionian Macroregion (AIMr), characterized by a diffuse industrial pattern based on small and medium-sized enterprises, located in a European periphery, logistics and politics. The analyses show a diverse environment, made up of territories and states that move between vitality, modernization, economic backwardness and social inadequacy of infrastructure networks. In reference to the pillars identified by the EU, the ability to develop investments agreements with strategic political partnership between the states are the main instruments to achieve the objectives of modernizing the infrastructure and technology of this new political and economic realities.
Keywords: Local Development, Social and Economic Gaps, Adriatic Industrial District, Infrastructure Networks, Partnership Capabilities
Evolution of Rates of Return to Schooling in Tunisia:1980-1999
Salma Zouari-Bouatour, Lazhar Boudhraa, and Sami Zouari
With reference to the theory of human capital, we estimate the Mincerian earnings functions based on individual data from national surveys of population and employment in 1980 and 1999. We show that the rates of return to education are, in 1980 and 1999, increasing proportionally with educational level. This growth of return rates means that the incentives for human capital accumulation continue to be strong. This result is general, it is observed for men and women, and in urban and rural areas. However, between 1980 and 1999, the average rate of return to education declined from 9.5% to 5.9%. Furthermore, this decline in the rates of return is general for all levels of education. This phenomenon affects the urban and rural areas as well as men and women. But the decline in the rate of return increases when the education level is low: the less the education level is, the bigger the decline in the rate of return is. This can result in a general deficiency in demand for labor by companies which seriously affects low qualified people. Following Heckman (1979), we re-estimate the earnings functions corrected for selection bias due to Mill’s reversed ratio. The new findings of education return rates are superior to those obtained from the standard estimates. The results prove that education return rates increase when the education level increases; moreover, it explained the decline that happened between 1980 and 1999, which touched all education levels. However, the relative decrease in returns to education becomes larger in higher education levels; the lack of demand for labor would be felt more for the more educated.
Keywords: Labor Market, Education System, Mincerian Earnings Function, Selection Bias, Mill’s Inverted Ratio, Rate of Return of Education
Multivariate Analysis of Countries according to Subdimensions of Human Development and Gender Inequality Indices
Selay Giray and Ozlem Ergut
Human Development Index (HDI) is an index aiming to measure human development by taking into account a long and healthy life, access to knowledge and a decent standard of living. The 2013 Human Development Report presents HDI values and ranks, the Inequality-adjusted HDI the Gender Inequality Index (GII) and the Multidimensional Poverty Index. The aim of this study is to evaluate countries according to their similarities and differences using the indicators contained in the 2013 human development report. A figure created in two dimensional space was used by evaluation. Locations of Turkey, OECD and Eurasian countries are analyzed and interpreted elaborately. Multidimensional scaling is a statistical technique provides visual representation of the objects using proximity patterns. The most recent data of countries were analyzed by Multidimensional Scaling analysis (MDS). Stress value obtained from metric multidimensional scaling application was found in desired range. Also it was determined that we can trust the interpretations made of the map. To begin with, comparison by country groups was made, then remarkable points were interpreted on the basis of country. As examination of the map obtained from MDS application with HDI and GII indexes, it was remarked that OECD countries were grouped on the left hand side and Eurasian countries were grouped on the right hand side. Turkey, a member of OECD, located far away from other OECD countries and located closer to Eurasian countries. According to HDI and GII indexes Mexico is closest country to Turkey. Also Mexico is the country, which is perceived similar to Turkey.
Keywords: Human Development Index, Gender Inequality Index, Multidimensional Scaling
Aksemsettin Mah. Kocasinan Cad.
Erenoglu Is Merkezi
Fatih – Istanbul, TURKEY
Email: [email protected]
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.