Effect of Turkish Public Diplomacy Activities on Relations between Turkey and Georgia
The aim of this article is to analyze the impact power of Turkish public diplomacy performed towards Georgia to empower the relation between both countries. Within the scope of this article, after public diplomacy term was discussed in many aspects, some of the important activities of the actors of Turkish public diplomacy have also been mentioned. When these activities are examined, it has been observed that non-governmental organizations failed to show the desired level of asset compared to government agencies in Georgia. Besides, when Turkish public diplomacy activities are examined as a whole, it has been remarked that these activities play an effective role to gain the sympathy of the Georgian. However, it has been concluded that the impacts of these activities on Turkey- Georgia relations are limited especially due to the Russian influence on relations with each of these two countries.
Keywords: Turkish Public Diplomacy, Georgia, Russia, Interstate Relations
The Power Struggle in the Layer of Transnational Hydropolitics: The Case of the Ilisu Dam Project
The study analyses hydropolitical relations among state and non-state actors in the context of the layer of transnational hydropolitics by looking at the controversy over the construction of the Ilisu dam project. Turkey is fully engaged in its „hydraulic mission‟, very extensively and rapidly „developing‟ water resources throughout its territory. Some of these flows cross international borders, specifically very heavily contested Euphrates and Tigris basin. This large basin has attracted considerable academic attention, notably in regards to Turkey‟s relations with downstream neighbours, Syria and Iraq. Yet, the great bulk of the existing analysis falls prey to two broader weaknesses; a) it has narrowly applied the recently developed literature regarding the role of power in transboundary water politics, and b) it has neglected or under-emphasized how non-state actors enrol in hydropolitical processes. Informed by deep investigation of the case study regarding the recent controversy over the construction of the Ilisu dam on the Tigris River, the study proposes a conceptual framework that seeks to analyse how power dynamics are at work at different scales of hydropolitics other than inter-state relations between the riparian states and how both discursive and material power capabilities influence the outcome of interactions as well as conflictual and cooperative relations between the state and non-state actors. The application of the conceptual framework to the relations between opponents and proponents of the construction of the Ilisu dam project shows how power dynamics change over time and they strongly shape conflictual relations between the actors. By highlighting the influence of the transnational anti-dam activist networks, the study shows the relevance of including non-state actors into analysis. The study shows that such actors lack material power but are able to use discursive (ideational and bargaining) power very effectively to meet their interests.
Keywords: Ilisu Dam, Hydropolitics, Power
Becoming Mainstream? Euroscepticism among Established Parties in V4 Countries
The recent conflicts of the Hungarian and the Polish governments with the European Union as well as the cooperation between the Visegrád countries during the migrant crisis have drawn attention to this region. Eurosceptic parties in these countries have ensured significant reinforcement to the critics of the European Union since the Big Bang enlargement in 2004. Most of them (League of Polish Families and Self-Defence in Poland, Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia, Slovak National Party and Movement for a Better Hungary) have had a populist profile and have profited from the general protest mood. However, in recent years more mainstream or established parties have started to criticize the European Union. Parties considered Eurosceptic are in governmental position in two out of the four countries (Hungary and Poland) while they play significant role in Slovakia (Freedom and Solidarity) and in the Czech Republic (Civic Democratic Party). The paper aims to explain the reasons lying behind the Euroscepticism of these mainly centre-right parties in the region, i.e. it examines if Euroscepticism is a consequence of the ideology or only a part of a broader party strategy.
Keywords: Euroscepticism, Parties, Visegrád Countries, Fidesz, Law and Justice, Civic Democratic Party, Freedom and Solidarity
Communication between the State and Migrants in the Risk Society: Identities, Media and Diasporas
The tendency of modern political regimes to transform the society into becoming “uniform” causes various social problems. Modern nation states try to shape all citizens in a manner that they act in coordination with each other in all the stages of the democratic processes. However, the modern world system which makes the labor migration unavoidable in turn causes the emergence of multi-cultural metropolises. This leads to a “risk society” with a high potential of conflict; because as the modern state tries to ensure that the society acts in harmony, social groups such as minorities and diasporas that represent different identities show resistance. During this process, the media is utilized as the ideological apparatus of the state in order to attain social integrity and harmony. In this study, the social and political issues that arise due to the impact of mass migration in societies which are aimed to be made “uniform” by the modern centralized powers are to be investigated.
Keywords: Centralized Power, Risk Society, Identity, Media, Diaspora
Nation, Communitarianism, Peace and Globalization: A Vulnerable Relationship
In general, human progress was achieved through accumulation from simple to complex. Nations appeared and were developed on their own basis then, there were communities (European, American, Asian, International, etc.), often stimulated by the need of progress, by the success in competition, by peace. The transition to globalization was obvious and reveals itself today as a natural process with multiple causes, mainly economic and especially it reveals the need for smooth movement activities. For example, the globalization of capital markets, labor market with incidences on development ever since antiquity but also the product market. What factors do such processes favor? What factors do hampers interpose? Do such developments manifest realities? What about the prospect? Here the object of my research is addressing some complex horizons such as nation, peace, war, integration, migration, globalization, terrorism; all this in a world, as troubled as ours.
Keywords: Nation, Integration, Globalization, Peace, War, Migration, Vulnerabilities
Aksemsettin Mah. Kocasinan Cad.
Erenoglu Is Merkezi
Fatih – Istanbul, TURKEY
Email: [email protected]
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.