The Role of the Economic Rents in the Political Transformation of Turkey after the 1980s
It is claimed in this article that one of the main aims of the “bureaucratic tutelage” system in Turkey is to control the distribution of the economic rents created by the import-substituting industrialization. Thus, economic statism and the bureaucratic control over elected politicians were compatible with each other until economic liberalization in 1980. Even a limited economic liberalization created great opportunities for the politicians to weaken the power of the bureaucratic elites, particularly military officers. Thus, there is a strong relationship between economic liberalization and democratization in Turkey after 1980. However, even though, bureaucratic tutelage is regressed, Turkey is still far from having a transparent government and efficient public organizations. The conventional explanations are not adequate to grasp the intermingled relations between economic and political institutionalization in Turkey. Therefore, public choice may help to understand the role of the economic motivations of the political actors/elites in the context of shaping the political institutions. The political actors are seen as utility maximizers within the limits of institutional rules and practices, and the institutional change is explained with the help of changing interests and power relations of these actors. Enlarging economic liberties have gradually forced bureaucratic tutelage system to dissolve. For sure, dissolving the bureaucratic tutelage system is not a perfect or an intended process but examining this process from Turgut Ozal to Tayyip Erdogan gives us a theoretical framework to understand the political transformation of Turkey in the era of an open economy.
Keywords: Economic Liberalization, Democratic Consolidation, Turgut Ozal, Justice and Development Party, Bureaucratic Tutelage, Economic Rents
Media and Cerattepe in Turkey: Althusser’s Communications Ideological State Apparatus [ISA] – Oriented Assessment
Huseyin Sevgi and Serhat Ozgokceler
According to Althusser (2000), ideology is just an apparatus which state uses it to control the masses through pressure and authority. He claimed that there is a reality which separate state pressure apparatus and ideology. He used “Ideological State Apparatus” [ISA] for this reality. He told that the ISAs process using ideology and reproduce the current system. In this context neoliberal policies, which have been applied for the last 35 years, have become irresistible with ISAs. Because of reckless approach of these policies to the nature/environment, reactions and resistances have emerged against them. The media [~press] which takes part in Althusser’s communications ISA plays a significant role within this context, because the media has qualification as significative and leader characteristics in relation to notably political choices, cultures, perceptions, life-styles and economical behaviors. In this sense, the state through the media takes on the might of its power and also reproduces the current system. In this study, language of the media in Turkey will be discussed case of Cerattepe-oriented in the context of Althusser’s communications ISA. In addition to this proposal also focuses on how environmental movements in Cerattepe were exposed in pro-government daily news and/or media in Turkey. Finally, it will be deliberated that the ditto media organs introduce the civil initiatives in Cerattepe as a handy apparatus in the name of neoliberal policies and government’s power.
Keywords: Althusser, the Communications ISA, Nature, Media, Cerattepe, Turkey
Combining Work with Caring for Elderly Family Member in Poland (Chosen Issues)
The problem of combining work with caring for elderly family members is becoming an increasingly important matter due to demographic (population ageing) and social (increasing economic activity of women) changes that are currently in progress. The aim of the article is to present selected issues related to the professional situation of people taking care for their elderly family members. The primary focus of the study is reasons for not working of non-working caregivers, and professional problems of working caregivers.
Keywords: Work-Life Balance, Family Caregivers, Long-term Care
Child Labor in Palembang
Indri Ariyanti, Taufiq Marwa, Nurlina Tarmizi, and Bambang B. Soebyakto
This research explains the effects of gender, parents’ education, parent’s income, the number of siblings, childbirth order, the presence of parents and patriarchal kinship system on the probability of child labor in Palembang. This study, especially, investigates the probability of children age 7-15 years old to be a worker. It is found that factors that significantly affect child labor are gender, the number of siblings, childbirth order, the presence of parents and patriarchal system. However, parents’ education and income are found to be insignificant in affecting the probability of child labor in Palembang.
Keywords: Child Labor, Palembang, Probability
Aksemsettin Mah. Kocasinan Cad.
Erenoglu Is Merkezi
Fatih – Istanbul, TURKEY
Email: [email protected]
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.