The Impact of Gender Inequalities in Education on Income
Serap Bedir Kara and Aysegul Coskun
Gender inequality in education, health, politics and employment is considered as a global problem. The development of human capital thanks to education is expected to increase efficient individuals in quantity and quality. It is stated that as the education rate of women and participation rate of the educated women in the labor force increase, the quality of the labor force and the rate of healthier and well-fed children will increase as well and consequently the human capital of the countries will have a positive effect on the economic development in the long term. In this study, the effect of gender inequality in primary and secondary education on income was investigated by panel data analysis for high and upper-middle-income countries in the period of 1998-2017. According to the results, the effect of capital accumulation and fertility on income was positive and the effect of gender inequality in education on income was negative. It is seen that gender inequality, especially in primary education, has significantly negative effect on income, and that inequality in primary education is transferred to the next education levels and it is important to eliminate inequality of opportunity in terms of income inequality and growth potential in the long term. Therefore, it is necessary to take into account the importance of long-term and stable policies, in particular in primary education, and to create the necessary arrangements and awareness to increase the education and job opportunities of women in order to eliminate inequality of opportunity in education.
Keywords: Education, Gender Inequalities, Income, Fixed Effect, Random Effect
National Military Service and Its Impact on the People of Agaw Meder (North West Ethiopia)
Ayenew Mamo Seyoum
The main objective of this study is to reconstruct the history of National Military Service (NMS) and its impact on the people of Agäw Meder. In order to undertake this study document analysis, in-depth interview, archival investigation and focus group discussions were undertaken as instruments of data collection. NMS was executed in Agäw Meder Sub-province thorough five main rounds and two second-calls. Though its emphasize on students of senior secondary schools and 12th grade completes, the recruitment for NMS was also focused on educated and uneducated, rural and town resident youths. NMS has both positive and negative impacts. When we come to the result, its participants and the community at large hated it. Despite the existence of numerous negative impacts, there are also some positive impacts of NMS on the participants, which include the development of multiethnic spirit, love of work, coping with hardship, exposure to military science and opportunity to learn vocation. This research was undertaken based on descriptive research design. This is because, it helps to achieve the objectives of the study and to find answer to the research questions of the study by allowing the researchers to describe the characteristic of the phenomena understudy.
Keywords: Agäw Meder District, National Military Service (NMS), Agaws
The Correlation between Some Macroeconomic Indicators (Innovation, R&D, FDI) and Their Impact on the Increase of Labor Productivity
The objective of this study is to investigate the correlation between some macroeconomic indicators for labor productivity growth. In conditions of the current metamorphosis of the national economy, the identification of factors that contribute to the increase of labor productivity becomes a necessity for the survival of countries on the regional and world scale. The knowledge about these factors and their strategic combination contribute to the increase of productivity, of innovative business, which directly leads to the enhancement of well-being in the world economy. Economic growth in the countries of the world is directly proportional to the labor productivity equation, which is dependent on the number of unknowns expressed by its determinants. From this perspective, the author addresses the aspect of economic growth and the heterogeneity of the factors of increasing labor productivity in both national and global economies using the statistical method of correlating factors. The results of the study showed that investment, export, research, and development are factors that have a direct impact on economic growth, thus being possible to establish the strategies that are effective in the development of various national economies.
Keywords: Correlation of Indicators, Productivity, Investment, Export, National Economies
Aksemsettin Mah. Kocasinan Cad.
Erenoglu Is Merkezi
Fatih – Istanbul, TURKEY
Email: [email protected]
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.