Teacher Professionalism as an Impetus for Teacher Leadership to Lead Schools: A Retrospective Study
Berhane Aradom Tedla and Ephrem Habtemichael Redda
Teaching encompasses leadership knowledge, skills, and dispositions. Teachers, as professionals, draw their leadership power from competencies, influences, relationships, or expertise, but current leadership models position teachers as followers, not as leaders. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that teachers, whatsoever their situation, position, or belief may be, are leaders of classrooms and schools without stepping up to formal roles. The Toulmin method of argument was employed to support and reason out the main claim. The findings of the study suggested that leadership is not a special role of a particular person; it includes all facets of schools and communities, particularly teachers. The author argued and identified a number of leadership attributes exhibited by teachers, and subsequently discussed teacher professionalism to show whether it is the only source for teachers to demonstrate leadership. Eventually, it has been concluded and corroborated that teachers, by their very profession, are leaders of classrooms and schools; though teachers may not be aware. Programs of teacher leadership are essential not to make teachers leaders, as teachers are already leaders of their schools, but to make them more conscious of their leadership functions and improve upon them on a daily basis.
Keywords: Teacher Leadership, Teacher Professionalism, Teacher Barriers, Pedagogues
Demystifying and Determining the Role of Traditional Leadership in Ward Committee Participation
Musitha Mavhungu Elias, Netshidzivhani Mmbengeni Victor, and Mamokhere John
This article aimed to demystify and determine the role of traditional leaders in the participation of municipal Ward Committee meetings in local municipalities. A desktop review of secondary sources was prepared in collecting data relevant to traditional leadership and ward committee participation. This is motivated by the fact that there is no consensus on their role in western-oriented democracy. Various pieces of legislation have directed their participation in ward committee meetings. This article has revealed a deliberate effort to exclude traditional leaders from participating in municipal council meetings, despite pieces of legislation requiring them to do so. This article recommends that traditional leaders be fully recognized and be allowed to play their role just like any elected politician because they are more legitimate than the latter. The article further recommends that there be a division of the country into rural and urban municipal councils where they would fully participate in the affairs of their people. In conclusion, it is also imperative to note that the two structures, namely elected and traditional, both represent the interests of the same people.
Keywords: Local Municipalities, South Africa, Traditional Leadership, Ward Committees
How Does Financial Market Stress Respond to Shocks in Global Economic Activity and Exchange Rate Stability? A Structural VAR Approach
Baneng Naape and Bekithemba Qeqe
The study examines the response of financial market stress to innovations in global economic activity and the exchange rate in emerging and advanced market economies during the period 2006Q1 and 2020Q4. This is achieved by means of time series econometric analysis. The impulse response function estimated through structural factorization indicates that financial market stress responds positively towards its own innovations and to innovations in global economic activity. In contrast, financial market stress responds negatively to a one standard deviation in the exchange rate in the long run albeit the response is neutral in the short run. The findings from the variance decomposition show that in advanced market economies, a larger fraction of the discrepancies in financial market stress are explained by its own innovations followed by innovations in global economic activity, whereas in emerging market economies, a larger proportion of the discrepancies in financial market stress are explained by its own innovations followed by innovations in the broad exchange rate. Given the findings, the study recommends strong coordination between monetary policy and fiscal policy to ensure that overall economic activity is optimized and maintained in the long run. Monetary authorities have a role to play in ensuring price and exchange rate stability while fiscal authorities have the tools to realize minimal budget deficits and optimal debt management.
Keywords: Financial Stress, Exchange Rate Stability, Global Economic Activity, Emerging Markets
Reducing Cyber Incidents through Good Online Behavioral Norms: Lessons from South Africa
Naume Sonhera and David Mhlanga
The phenomenon of cyber incidents has grown commonplace in schools throughout the world, including South Africa. Cyber mishaps are becoming more common, affecting both learners and parents, and expecting parents to supervise their children’s online activity 24 hours a day is unrealistic. Several studies have highlighted several remedies, however even with such solutions, cyber incidents are still on the rise. As a result, the study aims to use a technical tool to investigate how cyber incidents can be reduced through good online behavioral norms which is an alternative strategy for reducing cyber occurrences among learners. Using the experimental action approach, the findings revealed that if learners are given alert messages that encourage them to consider appropriate behavioral standards, the number of learners who send hurtful messages may be lower than the number of learners who wish to send hurtful messages. As a result, the study suggests that educational institutions should step up their efforts to ensure that learners receive alarm messages that encourage them to consider appropriate behavior norms.
Keywords: Cyber Incident, Learners, Online, Behavior, Message, Application, Hurting
Predicting Entrepreneurial Barriers and Intentions: The Role of University Environment, Entrepreneurial Culture and Public Infrastructure
This study investigated four questions: whether a non-entrepreneurship-oriented university environment predicts entrepreneurship barriers, whether an entrepreneurial-oriented university environment predicted entrepreneurship intentions among learners, whether public infrastructure mediated the relationship between the non-entrepreneurship-oriented university environment and entrepreneurship barriers and, whether public infrastructure mediates the relationship between the entrepreneurship-oriented university environment and entrepreneurship intentions. An explanatory research design was pursued and the study was quantitative in nature. A sample of university learners was randomly approached for primary data collection. A self-administered questionnaire was used as a research instrument. Simple linear regression and hierarchical regression analyses were performed to make meaning of the data. The study found that a non-entrepreneurship-oriented university environment predicts entrepreneurship barriers, and an entrepreneurial-oriented university environment predicts entrepreneurship intentions among learners. Hierarchical regression analysis results revealed that public infrastructure does not mediate the relationship between the non-entrepreneurship-oriented university environment and entrepreneurship barriers. The results further reveal that public infrastructure does not mediate the relationship between an entrepreneurial university environment and entrepreneurship intentions. The study concluded that to enhance entrepreneurship behavior among university learners, widespread entrepreneurship education must be adopted.
Keywords: University Environment, Culture, Entrepreneurship, Barriers, Intentions
Aksemsettin Mah. Kocasinan Cad.
Erenoglu Is Merkezi
Fatih – Istanbul, TURKEY
Email: [email protected]
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.